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Philosophy Of Science

Author: Gerhard Schurz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134101228
Size: 76.29 MB
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Philosophy of Science: A Unified Approach combines a general introduction to philosophy of science with an integrated survey of all its important subfields. As the book’s subtitle suggests, this excellent overview is guided methodologically by "a unified approach" to philosophy of science: behind the diversity of scientific fields one can recognize a methodological unity of the sciences. This unity is worked out in this book, revealing all the while important differences between subject areas. Structurally, this comprehensive book offers a two-part approach, which makes it an excellent introduction for students new to the field and a useful resource for more advanced students. Each chapter is divided into two sections. The first section assumes no foreknowledge of the subject introduced, and the second section builds upon the first by bringing into the conversation more advanced, complementary topics. Definitions, key propositions, examples and figures overview all of the core material. At the end of every chapter there are selected readings and exercises (with solutions at the end of the book). The book also includes a comprehensive bibliography and an index.

A Tale Of Seven Scientists And A New Philosophy Of Science

Author: Eric Scerri
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190233001
Size: 41.46 MB
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In his latest book, Eric Scerri presents a completely original account of the nature of scientific progress. It consists of a holistic and unified approach in which science is seen as a living and evolving single organism. Instead of scientific revolutions featuring exceptionally gifted individuals, Scerri argues that the "little people" contribute as much as the "heroes" of science. To do this he examines seven case studies of virtually unknown chemists and physicists in the early 20th century quest to discover the structure of the atom. They include the amateur scientist Anton van den Broek who pioneered the notion of atomic number as well as Edmund Stoner a then physics graduate student who provided the seed for Pauli's Exclusion Principle. Another case is the physicist John Nicholson who is virtually unknown and yet was the first to propose the notion of quantization of angular momentum that was soon put to good use by Niels Bohr. Instead of focusing on the logic and rationality of science, Scerri elevates the role of trial and error and multiple discovery and moves beyond the notion of scientific developments being right or wrong. While criticizing Thomas Kuhn's notion of scientific revolutions he agrees with Kuhn that science is not drawn towards an external truth but is rather driven from within. The book will enliven the long-standing debate on the nature of science, which has increasingly shied away from the big question of "what is science?"

General Philosophy Of Science Focal Issues

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080548548
Size: 32.58 MB
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Scientists use concepts and principles that are partly specific for their subject matter, but they also share part of them with colleagues working in different fields. Compare the biological notion of a 'natural kind' with the general notion of 'confirmation' of a hypothesis by certain evidence. Or compare the physical principle of the 'conservation of energy' and the general principle of 'the unity of science'. Scientists agree that all such notions and principles aren't as crystal clear as one might wish. An important task of the philosophy of the special sciences, such as philosophy of physics, of biology and of economics, to mention only a few of the many flourishing examples, is the clarification of such subject specific concepts and principles. Similarly, an important task of 'general' philosophy of science is the clarification of concepts like 'confirmation' and principles like 'the unity of science'. It is evident that clarfication of concepts and principles only makes sense if one tries to do justice, as much as possible, to the actual use of these notions by scientists, without however following this use slavishly. That is, occasionally a philosopher may have good reasons for suggesting to scientists that they should deviate from a standard use. Frequently, this amounts to a plea for differentiation in order to stop debates at cross-purposes due to the conflation of different meanings. While the special volumes of the series of Handbooks of the Philosophy of Science address topics relative to a specific discipline, this general volume deals with focal issues of a general nature. After an editorial introduction about the dominant method of clarifying concepts and principles in philosophy of science, called explication, the first five chapters deal with the following subjects. Laws, theories, and research programs as units of empirical knowledge (Theo Kuipers), various past and contemporary perspectives on explanation (Stathis Psillos), the evaluation of theories in terms of their virtues (Ilkka Niiniluto), and the role of experiments in the natural sciences, notably physics and biology (Allan Franklin), and their role in the social sciences, notably economics (Wenceslao Gonzalez). In the subsequent three chapters there is even more attention to various positions and methods that philosophers of science and scientists may favor: ontological, epistemological, and methodological positions (James Ladyman), reduction, integration, and the unity of science as aims in the sciences and the humanities (William Bechtel and Andrew Hamilton), and logical, historical and computational approaches to the philosophy of science (Atocha Aliseda and Donald Gillies). The volume concludes with the much debated question of demarcating science from nonscience (Martin Mahner) and the rich European-American history of the philosophy of science in the 20th century (Friedrich Stadler). Comprehensive coverage of the philosophy of science written by leading philosophers in this field Clear style of writing for an interdisciplinary audience No specific pre-knowledge required

Kant On Conscience

Author: Emre Kazim
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004340661
Size: 79.59 MB
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In Kant on Conscience Emre Kazim offers the first systematic treatment of Kant’s theory of conscience. Contrary to the scholarly consensus, Kazim argues that Kant’s various discussions of conscience are philosophically coherent aspects of the same unified thing (‘Unity Thesis’).

Scientific Pluralism Reconsidered

Author: Stephanie Ruphy
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 082298153X
Size: 45.38 MB
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Can we expect our scientific theories to make up a unified structure, or do they form a kind of “patchwork” whose pieces remain independent from each other? Does the proliferation of sometimes-incompatible representations of the same phenomenon compromise the ability of science to deliver reliable knowledge? Is there a single correct way to classify things that science should try to discover, or is taxonomic pluralism here to stay? These questions are at the heart of philosophical debate on the unity or plurality of science, one of the most central issues in philosophy of science today. This book offers a critical overview and a new structure of this debate. It focuses on the methodological, epistemic, and metaphysical commitments of various philosophical attitudes surrounding monism and pluralism, and offers novel perspectives and pluralist theses on scientific methods and objects, reductionism, plurality of representations, natural kinds, and scientific classifications.

Philosophy Of Science In Practice

Author: Hsiang-Ke Chao
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331945532X
Size: 65.53 MB
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This volume reflects the ‘philosophy of science in practice’ approach and takes a fresh look at traditional philosophical problems in the context of natural, social, and health research. Inspired by the work of Nancy Cartwright that shows how the practices and apparatuses of science help us to understand science and to build theories in the philosophy of science, this volume critically examines the philosophical concepts of evidence, laws, causation, and models and their roles in the process of scientific reasoning. Each chapter is an important one in the philosophy of science, while the volume as a whole deals with these philosophical concepts in a unified way in the context of actual scientific practice. This volume thus aims to contribute to this new direction in the philosophy of science.​

Neurophilosophy

Author: Patricia Smith Churchland
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262530859
Size: 18.56 MB
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Neurophilosophy is a rich interdisciplinary study of the prospects for a unified cognitive neurobiology. Contemporary research in the empirical neurosciences, and recent research in the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of science, are used to illuminate fundamental questions concerning the relation between abstract cognitive theory and substantive neuroscience. A Bradford Book.

Probability And Evidence

Author: Paul Horwich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107142105
Size: 39.62 MB
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This influential book offers a probabilistic approach to scientific reasoning to resolve central issues in the philosophy of science.

Omniology

Author: Daniel J. Schneck
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781463790417
Size: 32.70 MB
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This book examines the fundamental basis of 'reality,' in all of its manifested forms, whether or not experienced by humans. Explored are what there is to know; what it is we are capable of knowing; what makes such knowing possible (theoretically, technologically, anatomically, physiologically, etc.) … and … perhaps more interestingly, clearly identified are what it is we are not capable of knowing: why we can never know these things, and what this inability means in terms of how we perceive the world around us in all of its various forms. These include physical, chemical, political, social, economic, religious, cultural, and other manifestations of “reality” -- all of which, as is shown, derive from a common set of fundamental attributes … denominators that are 'common' to all realizable forms of energy, and hence, form the basis for a 'Unified Theory of Everything." Having discovered this, one is able to explain the essence of everything … or, at least, know what to look for in seeking meaningful knowledge. Indeed, the search for knowledge, and through it, truth, is among the strongest of all human drives. As a part of this search, we constantly seek common denominators … basic attributes that can help us, in some generic sense, gain further insights into the fundamental nature of our universe, and how it becomes manifest in our daily experiences. Indeed, this book explores how we perceive the world around us, and how we build those perceptions into a body of knowledge. The quest for such knowledge … the journey … may be an end in itself for – given our own anatomic, physiologic, technologic, analytic, sociologic, political, and other constraints and limitations – the ultimate objective may very well be unattainable. That having been said, however, our continuing efforts to improve life on this planet is an attainable goal … so, to that end, we strive to learn more, to understand more, to accomplish more, and to keep expanding the envelope of our abilities and understanding.

Explaining Science

Author: Ronald N. Giere
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226292037
Size: 16.93 MB
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"This volume presents an attempt to construct a unified cognitive theory of science in relatively short compass. It confronts the strong program in sociology of science and the positions of various postpositivist philosophers of science, developing significant alternatives to each in a reeadily comprehensible sytle. It draws loosely on recent developments in cognitive science, without burdening the argument with detailed results from that source. . . . The book is thus a provocative one. Perhaps that is a measure of its value: it will lead scholars and serious student from a number of science studies disciplines into continued and sharpened debate over fundamental questions."—Richard Burian, Isis "The writing is delightfully clear and accessible. On balance, few books advance our subject as well."—Paul Teller, Philosophy of Science