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Phytoplankton Responses To Human Impacts At Different Scales

Author: Nico Salmaso
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400757905
Size: 48.42 MB
Format: PDF
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Phytoplankton responses to human impact at different scales provides a state-of-the-art review of changes in the phytoplankton assemblages determined by human alterations of lakes and rivers. A wide spectrum of case studies describe the effects due to eutrophication and climate change, as well as other impacts connected with watershed management, hydrological alterations and introduction of non-indigenous species. The volume also includes two wide reviews on planktonic coccoid green algae and planktic heterocytous cyanobacteria. This book is addressed to ecologists and scientists involved in phytoplankton ecology and taxonomy. Many case studies provide a sound scientific basis of knowledge for a wise management of water bodies. Previously published in Hydrobiologia, vol. 698, 2012

The Balance Of Nature And Human Impact

Author: Klaus Rohde
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107310946
Size: 43.69 MB
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It is clear that nature is undergoing rapid changes as a result of human activities such as industry, agriculture, travel, fisheries and urbanisation. What effects do these activities have? Are they disturbing equilibria in ecological populations and communities, thus upsetting the balance of nature, or are they enhancing naturally occurring disequilibria, perhaps with even worse consequences? It is often argued that large-scale fluctuations in climate and sea-levels have occurred over and over again in the geological past, long before human activities could possibly have had any impact, and that human effects are very small compared to those that occur naturally. Should we conclude that human activity cannot significantly affect the environment, or are these naturally occurring fluctuations actually being dangerously enhanced by humans? This book examines these questions, first by providing evidence for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in relatively undisturbed ecosystems, and second by examining human-induced effects.

Nitrogen In The Marine Environment

Author: Edward J. Carpenter
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483288293
Size: 53.87 MB
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Nitrogen in the Marine Environment provides information pertinent to the many aspects of the nitrogen cycle. This book presents the advances in ocean productivity research, with emphasis on the role of microbes in nitrogen transformations with excursions to higher trophic levels. Organized into 24 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the abundance and distribution of the various forms of nitrogen in a number of estuaries. This text then provides a comparison of the nitrogen cycling of various ecosystems within the marine environment. Other chapters consider chemical distributions and methodology as an aid to those entering the field. This book discusses as well the enzymology of the initial steps of inorganic nitrogen assimilation. The final chapter deals with the philosophy and application of modeling as an investigative method in basic research on nitrogen dynamics in coastal and open-ocean marine environments. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, microbiologists, aquatic ecologists, and bacteriologists.

Plankton Ecology Of The Southwestern Atlantic

Author: Mónica S. Hoffmeyer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319778692
Size: 67.34 MB
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This book integrates a variety of issues such as regional settings of productivity and nutrient cycling; plankton of coastal and shelf systems; plankton, climate change and human-induced changes; harmful algae and their impacts; and gelatinous zooplankton. This book explores the intriguing marine plankton communities of the SWA region of South America encompassing low to high latitude environments, framed by a complex hydrographic background and global climate change. This vast and iconic region has been largely under-recognized and under-studied. However, in recent years a strong interest has emerged along with the acknowledgment of its high biological productivity. The book concludes by discussing conservation in the region, highlighting regional biodiversity hotspots where the challenges of climate change, habitat loss, and other threats to biodiversity may be particularly acute. Plankton Ecology of the Southwestern Atlantic is a timely synthesis of the field, setting a new baseline for future research. It will be important reading for both researchers and graduate students, and will also be of interest and use to a professional audience of oceanographers, conservation biologists, stake holders and educated science enthusiasts

Lake Kinneret

Author: Tamar Zohary
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401789444
Size: 30.20 MB
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This condensed volume summarizes updated knowledge on the warm-monomictic subtropical Lake Kinneret, including its geophysical setting, the dynamics of physical, chemical and biological processes and the major natural and anthropogenic factors that affect this unique aquatic ecosystem. This work expands on a previous monograph on Lake Kinneret published in 1978 and capitalizes on the outcome of more than 40 years of research and monitoring activities. These were intensively integrated with lake management aimed at sustainable use for supply of drinking water, tourism, recreation and fishery. The book chapters are aimed at the limnological community, aquatic ecologists, managers of aquatic ecosystems and other professionals. It presents the geographic and geological setting, the meteorology and hydrology of the region, continues with various aspects of the pelagic and the littoral systems. Finally, the last section of the book addresses lake management, demonstrating how the accumulated knowledge was applied in order to manage this important source of freshwater. The section on the pelagic system comprises the heart of the book, addressing the major physical processes, external and internal loading, the pelagic communities (from bacteria to fish), physiological processes and the major biogeochemical cycles in the lake.

Nitrogen In The Environment

Author: J.L. Hatfield
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080569895
Size: 48.66 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements for all life forms. In agricultural systems it is essential for the production of crops for feed, food, and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Nitrogen in the Environment provides a wholistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen. The scope of this book is diverse covering a range of topics and issues related to furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment at farm and national levels. Issues of nitrogen from its effects on crops and human nutrition to nitrogen in ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed to provide a broad view of the problem and support scientists, researchers, and engineers in formulating comprehensive solutions. * The only source which presents an international, wholistic perspective of the effects of nitrogen in the environment with worldwide mitigation practices * Provides details on how to improve the quality of the environment by analyzing the development of emerging technologies * Develops strategies to be used by soil scientists, agronomists, hydrologists, and geophysicists for broad scale improvement of nitrogen efficiency

Understanding Marine Biodiversity

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309176417
Size: 22.72 MB
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The diversity of marine life is being affected dramatically by fishery operations, chemical pollution and eutrophication, alteration of physical habitat, exotic species invasion, and effects of other human activities. Effective solutions will require an expanded understanding of the patterns and processes that control the diversity of life in the sea. Understanding Marine Biodiverity outlines the current state of our knowledge, and propose research agenda on marine biological diversity. This agenda represents a fundamental change in studying the ocean--emphasizing regional research across a range of space and time scales, enhancing the interface between taxonomy and ecology, and linking oceanographic and ecological approaches. Highlighted with examples and brief case studies, this volume illustrates the depth and breadth of undescribed marine biodiversity, explores critical environmental issues, advocates the use of regionally defined model systems, and identifies a series of key biodiversity research questions. The authors examine the utility of various research approaches--theory and modeling, retrospective analysis, integration of biotic and oceanographic surveys--and review recent advances in molecular genetics, instrumentation, and sampling techniques applicable to the research agenda. Throughout the book the critical role of taxonomy is emphasized. Informative to the scientist and accessible to the policymaker, Understanding Marine Biodiversity will be of specific interest to marine biologists, ecologists, oceanographers, and research administrators, and to government agencies responsible for utilizing, managing, and protecting the oceans.

Ocean Acidification

Author: Committee on the Development of an Integrated Science Strategy for Ocean Acidification Monitoring, Research, and Impacts Assessment
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030915359X
Size: 49.61 MB
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The ocean has absorbed a significant portion of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions. This benefits human society by moderating the rate of climate change, but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry. Carbon dioxide taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. The long term consequences of ocean acidification are not known, but are expected to result in changes to many ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean reviews the current state of knowledge, explores gaps in understanding, and identifies several key findings. Like climate change, ocean acidification is a growing global problem that will intensify with continued CO2 emissions and has the potential to change marine ecosystems and affect benefits to society. The federal government has taken positive initial steps by developing a national ocean acidification program, but more information is needed to fully understand and address the threat that ocean acidification may pose to marine ecosystems and the services they provide. In addition, a global observation network of chemical and biological sensors is needed to monitor changes in ocean conditions attributable to acidification.

Marine Ecosystems And Global Change

Author: Manuel Barange
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199558027
Size: 41.96 MB
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Global changes, including climate change and intensive fishing, are having significant impacts on the world's oceans. This book advances knowledge of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems and their major sub-systems, and how they respond to physical forcing.

Ecological Effects Of Water Level Fluctuations In Lakes

Author: Karl M. Wantzen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402091926
Size: 44.24 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Most aquatic ecosystems have variable water levels. These water-level fluctuations (WLF) have multiple effects on the organisms above and below the waterline. Natural WLF patterns in lakes guarantee both productivity and biodiversity, while untimely floods and droughts may have negative effects. Human impacts on WLF have led to a stabilization of the water levels of many lakes by hydraulic regulation, untimely drawdown due to water use, or floods due to water release from hydropower plants in the catchments. This book provides a first review in this field. It presents selected papers on the ecological effects of WLF in lakes, resulting from a workshop at the University of Konstanz in winter 2005. Issues addressed here include the extent of WLF, and analyses of their effects on different groups of biota from microorganisms to vertebrates. Applied issues include recommendations for the hydrological management of regulated lakes to reduce negative impacts, and a conceptual framework is delivered by an extension of the floodpulse concept for lakes. Current impacts on water use, including increasing demands on drinking and irrigation water, hydropower etc., and climate change effects on WLF make this book an essential resource for aquatic ecologists, engineers, and decision-makers dealing with the management of lake ecosystems and their catchments.