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Piezotronics And Piezo Phototronics

Author: Zhong Lin Wang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364234237X
Size: 44.64 MB
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The fundamental principle of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics were introduced by Wang in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Due to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has non-central symmetry in materials, such as the wurtzite structured ZnO, GaN and InN, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the crystal by applying a stress. Owing to the simultaneous possession of piezoelectricity and semiconductor properties, the piezopotential created in the crystal has a strong effect on the carrier transport at the interface/junction. Piezotronics is for devices fabricated using the piezopotential as a “gate” voltage to control charge carrier transport at a contact or junction. The piezo-phototronic effect uses the piezopotential to control the carrier generation, transport, separation and/or recombination for improving the performance of optoelectronic devices, such as photon detector, solar cell and LED. The functionality offered by piezotroics and piezo-phototronics are complimentary to CMOS technology. There is an effective integration of piezotronic and piezo-phototronic devices with silicon based CMOS technology. Unique applications can be found in areas such as human-computer interfacing, sensing and actuating in nanorobotics, smart and personalized electronic signatures, smart MEMS/NEMS, nanorobotics and energy sciences. This book introduces the fundamentals of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics and advanced applications. It gives guidance to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

Ferroelectric Crystals For Photonic Applications

Author: Pietro Ferraro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540779655
Size: 37.62 MB
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This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of ferroelectric domain engineering and characterization at micron- and nano-scale dimensions and periods. The book collects the results obtained in recent years by world renowned scientific leaders in the field, thus providing a valid and unique overview of the state-of-the-art. At the same time the book provides a view to future applications of those engineered materials in the field of photonics.

Heterogeneous Ferroelectric Solid Solutions

Author: Vitaly Yu. Topolov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642224830
Size: 66.64 MB
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The book deals with perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions for modern materials science and applications, solving problems of complicated heterophase/domain structures near the morphotropic phase boundary and applications to various systems with morphotropic phases. In this book domain state–interface diagrams are presented for the interpretation of heterophase states in perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions. It allows to describe the stress relief in the presence of polydomain phases, the behavior of unit-cell parameters of coexisting phases and the effect of external electric fields. The novelty of the book consists in (i) the first systematization of data about heterophase states and their evolution in ferroelectric solid solutions (ii) the general interpretation of heterophase and domain structures at changing temperature, composition or electric field (iii) the complete analysis of interconnection domain structures, unit-cell parameters changes, heterophase structures and stress relief.

Magnetic Perovskites

Author: Asish K. Kundu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132227611
Size: 66.30 MB
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Magnetic perovskite with multi functional properties (magneto-resistive, magneto-dielectric, multiferroics, spintronics, etc.) have attracted increasing attention due to their possible applications towards storage materials and intriguing fundamental Physics. Despite the numerous investigations on multi functional materials in the past few years, a very few magnetic perovskites have been known to realize as ferromagnetic-insulators. In perovskites centred transition metal oxides strong interplay between lattice, charge, spin and/or orbital degrees of freedom provide a fantastic playground to tune their physical properties. The main purpose of this book is to introduce the phenomenon and physics of complex magnetism (phase separation, spin glass, frustrations, etc.) in perovskite manganites and cobaltites via an experimental approach. The book is organized into four chapters; Chap. 1 gives a brief introduction of various interesting phenomena in magnetic perovskites. Chapter 2 describes the results of the investigations on electronic phase separation and glassy ferromagnetism of the hole-doped perovskite manganites and cobaltites. Ordered and disordered effects and related aspects in hole-doped perovskite cobaltites are described in Chap. 3. Finally, in Chap. 4 the bismuth based magnetic perovskite is discussed.

Spintronics

Author: Claudia Felser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048138329
Size: 79.75 MB
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Spintronics is an emerging technology exploiting the spin degree of freedom and has proved to be very promising for new types of fast electronic devices. Amongst the anticipated advantages of spintronics technologies, researchers have identified the non-volatile storage of data with high density and low energy consumption as particularly relevant. This monograph examines the concept of half-metallic compounds perspectives to obtain novel solutions and discusses several oxides such as perovskites, double perovskites and CrO2 as well as Heusler compounds. Such materials can be designed and made with high spin polarization and, especially in the case of Heusler compounds, many material-related problems present in current-day 3d metal systems, can be overcome. Spintronics: From Materials to Devices provides an insight into the current research on Heusler compounds and offers a general understanding of structure–property relationships, including the influence of disorder and correlations on the electronic structure and interfaces. Spintronics devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR) devices, with current perpendicular to the plane, in which Co2 based Heusler compounds are used as new electrode materials, are also introduced. From materials design by theoretical methods and the preparation and properties of the materials to the production of thin films and devices, this monograph represents a valuable guide to both novices and experts in the fields of Chemistry, Physics, and Materials Science.

Multifunctional Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Materials

Author: Lorena Pardo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048128754
Size: 28.43 MB
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This book presents selected topics on processing and properties of ferroelectric materials that are currently the focus of attention in scientific and technical research. Ferro-piezoelectric ceramics are key materials in devices for many applications, such as automotive, healthcare and non-destructive testing. As they are polycrystalline, non-centrosymmetric materials, their piezoelectricity is induced by the so-called poling process. This is based on the principle of polarization reversal by the action of an electric field that characterizes the ferroelectric materials. This book was born with the aim of increasing the awareness of the multifunctionality of ferroelectric materials among different communities, such as researchers, electronic engineers, end-users and manufacturers, working on and with ferro-piezoelectric ceramic materials and devices which are based on them. The initiative to write this book comes from a well-established group of researchers at the Laboratories of Ferroelectric Materials, Materials Science Institute of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC). This group has been working in different areas concerning thin films and bulk ceramic materials since the mid-1980s. It is a partner of the Network of Excellence on Multifunctional and Integrated Piezoelectric Devices (MIND) of the EC, in which the European Institute of Piezoelectric Materials and Devices has its origin.

Two Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

Author: Alexander V. Kolobov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319314505
Size: 42.40 MB
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This book summarizes the current status of theoretical and experimental progress in 2 dimensional graphene-like monolayers and few-layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Semiconducting monolayer TMDCs, due to the presence of a direct gap, significantly extend the potential of low-dimensional nanomaterials for applications in nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics as well as flexible nano-electronics with unprecedented possibilities to control the gap by external stimuli. Strong quantum confinement results in extremely high exciton binding energies which forms an interesting platform for both fundamental studies and device applications. Breaking of spatial inversion symmetry in monolayers results in strong spin-valley coupling potentially leading to their use in valleytronics. Starting with the basic chemistry of transition metals, the reader is introduced to the rich field of transition metal dichalcogenides. After a chapter on three dimensional crystals and a description of top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods of few-layer and single layer structures, the fascinating world of two-dimensional TMDCs structures is presented with their unique atomic, electronic, and magnetic properties. The book covers in detail particular features associated with decreased dimensionality such as stability and phase-transitions in monolayers, the appearance of a direct gap, large binding energy of 2D excitons and trions and their dynamics, Raman scattering associated with decreased dimensionality, extraordinarily strong light-matter interaction, layer-dependent photoluminescence properties, new physics associated with the destruction of the spatial inversion symmetry of the bulk phase, spin-orbit and spin-valley couplings. The book concludes with chapters on engineered heterostructures and device applications such as a monolayer MoS2 transistor. Considering the explosive interest in physics and applications of two-dimensional materials, this book is a valuable source of information for material scientists and engineers working in the field as well as for the graduate students majoring in materials science.

Future Trends In Microelectronics

Author: Serge Luryi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118678184
Size: 18.72 MB
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Leaders in the field predict the future of the microelectronics industry This seventh volume of Future Trends in Microelectronics summarizes and synthesizes the latest high-level scientific discussions to emerge from the Future Trends in Microelectronics international workshop, which has occurred every three years since 1995. It covers the full scope of cutting-edge topics in microelectronics, from new physical principles (quantum computing, correlated electrons), to new materials (piezoelectric nanostructures, terahertz plasmas), to emerging device technologies (embedded magnetic memories, spin lasers, and biocompatible microelectronics). An ideal book for microelectronics professionals and students alike, this volume of Future Trends in Microelectronics: Identifies the direction in which microelectronics is headed, enabling readers to move forward with research in an informed, efficient, and profitable manner Includes twenty-nine contributor chapters by international authorities from leading universities, major semiconductor companies, and government laboratories Provides a unified, cohesive exploration of various trends in microelectronics, looking to future opportunities, rather than past successes

Organic And Hybrid Photonic Crystals

Author: Davide Comoretto
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319165801
Size: 53.84 MB
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This book provides a multidisciplinary perspective (ranging from chemistry to physics and biology) of the current research and applications of organic and hybrid photonic crystals. The authors detail the chemical and physical tools used to develop organic photonic crystals, explain methods for engineering new nano-structures, and propose novel physical phenomena or technological applications based on such materials. Organic and Hybrid Photonic Crystal lasers, sensors, photovoltaic devices and stimuli responsive devices are discussed.