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Plant Respiration

Author: Hans Lambers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402035896
Size: 41.18 MB
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Respiration in plants, as in all living organisms, is essential to provide metabolic energy and carbon skeletons for growth and maintenance. As such, respiration is an essential component of a plant’s carbon budget. Depending on species and environmental conditions, it consumes 25-75% of all the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis – even more at extremely slow growth rates. Respiration in plants can also proceed in a manner that produces neither metabolic energy nor carbon skeletons, but heat. This type of respiration involves the cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase; it is unique to plants, and resides in the mitochondria. The activity of this alternative pathway can be measured based on a difference in fractionation of oxygen isotopes between the cytochrome and the alternative oxidase. Heat production is important in some flowers to attract pollinators; however, the alternative oxidase also plays a major role in leaves and roots of most plants. A common thread throughout this volume is to link respiration, including alternative oxidase activity, to plant functioning in different environments.

Plant Respiration Metabolic Fluxes And Carbon Balance

Author: Guillaume Tcherkez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319687034
Size: 58.41 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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There are currently intense efforts devoted to understand plant respiration (from genes toecosystems) and its regulatory mechanisms; this is because respiratory CO2 productionrepresents a substantial carbon loss in crops and in natural ecosystems. Thus, in addition tomanipulating photosynthesis to increase plant biomass production, minimization ofrespiratory loss should be considered in plant science and engineering. However, respiratorymetabolic pathways are at the heart of energy and carbon skeleton production and therefore, itis an essential component of carbon metabolism sustaining key processes such asphotosynthesis. The overall goal of this book is to provide an insight in such interactions aswell as an up-to-date view on respiratory metabolism, taking advantage of recent advancesand concepts, from fluxomics to natural isotopic signal of plant CO2 efflux. It is thus a nonoverlapping,complement to Volume 18 in this series (Plant Respiration From Cell toEcosystem) which mostly deals with mitochondrial electron fluxes and plant-scale respiratorylosses.

Handbook Of Plant And Crop Physiology Third Edition

Author: Mohammad Pessarakli
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466553294
Size: 37.52 MB
Format: PDF
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Continuous discoveries in plant and crop physiology have resulted in an abundance of new information since the publication of the second edition of the Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology, necessitating a new edition to cover the latest advances in the field. Like its predecessors, the Third Edition offers a unique, complete collection of topics in plant and crop physiology, serving as an up-to-date resource in the field. This edition contains more than 90 percent new material, and the remaining 10 percent has been updated and substantially revised. Divided into nine parts to make the information more accessible, this handbook covers the physiology of plant and crop growth and development, cellular and molecular aspects, and production processes. It addresses the physiological responses of plants and crops to environmental stresses, heavy metals, and agrichemicals; presents findings on small RNAs in response to temperature stress; and discusses the use of bioinformatics in plant/crop physiology. The book deals with the impacts of rising CO2 levels and climate change on plant/crop growth, development, and production. It also offers guidance on plants and crops that can be successfully cultivated under more stressful conditions, presented in six chapters that examine alleviation of future food security issues. With contributions from 105 scientists from 17 countries, this book provides a comprehensive resource for research and for university courses, covering plant physiological processes ranging from the cellular level to whole plants. The content provided can be used to plan, implement, and evaluate strategies for dealing with plant and crop physiology problems. This edition includes numerous tables, figures, and illustrations to facilitate comprehension of the material as well as thousands of index words to further increase accessibility to the desired information.

Plant Mitochondria From Genome To Function

Author: David Day
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402023996
Size: 73.32 MB
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Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also play crucial roles in many other aspects of plant development and performance, and possess an array of unique properties which allow them to interact with the specialized features of plant cell metabolism. The two main themes running through the book are the interconnection between gene regulation and protein function, and the integration of mitochondria with other components of plant cells. The book begins with an overview of the dynamics of mitochondrial structure, morphology and inheritance. It then discusses the biogenesis of mitochondria, the regulation of gene expression, the mitochondrial genome and its interaction with the nucleus, and the targeting of proteins to the organelle. This is followed by a discussion of the contributions that mutations, involving mitochondrial proteins, have made to our understanding of the way the organelle interacts with the rest of the plant cell, and the new field of proteomics and the discovery of new functions. Also covered are the pathways of electron transport, with special attention to the non-phosphorylating bypasses, metabolite transport, and specialized mitochondrial metabolism. In the end, the impact of oxidative stress on mitochondria and the defense mechanisms, that are employed to allow survival, are discussed. This book is for the use of advanced undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and beginning researchers in the areas of molecular and cellular biology, integrative biology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, proteomics and plant and agricultural sciences.

Chlorophyll A Fluorescence

Author: G.C. Papageorgiou
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402032188
Size: 13.31 MB
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Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthesis highlights chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence as a convenient, non-invasive, highly sensitive, rapid and quantitative probe of oxygenic photosynthesis. Thirty-one chapters, authored by 58 international experts, provide a solid foundation of the basic theory, as well as of the application of the rich information contained in the Chl a fluorescence signal as it relates to photosynthesis and plant productivity. Although the primary photochemical reactions of photosynthesis are highly efficient, a small fraction of absorbed photons escapes as Chl fluorescence, and this fraction varies with metabolic state, providing a basis for monitoring quantitatively various processes of photosynthesis. The book explains the mechanisms with which plants defend themselves against environmental stresses (excessive light, extreme temperatures, drought, hyper-osmolarity, heavy metals and UV). It also includes discussion on fluorescence imaging of leaves and cells and the remote sensing of Chl fluorescence from terrestrial, airborne, and satellite bases. The book is intended for use by graduate students, beginning researchers and advanced undergraduates in the areas of integrative plant biology, cellular and molecular biology, plant biology, biochemistry, biophysics, plant physiology, global ecology and agriculture.

Biophysical Techniques In Photosynthesis

Author: Thijs Aartsma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402082509
Size: 63.51 MB
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Since the first volume on Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis Research, published in 1996, new experimental techniques and methods have been devised at a rapid pace. The present book is a sequel which complements the publication of the first volume by providing a comprehensive overview of the most important new techniques developed over the past ten years, especially those that are relevant for research on the mechanism and fundamental aspects of photosynthesis.

Pflanzen Kologie

Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783827409874
Size: 55.27 MB
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Das Lehrbuch behandelt die PflanzenAkologie in folgenden Teilgebieten: Molekulare A-kophysiologie (Stressphysiologie) AutAkologie (WArme-, Wasser-, Kohlenstoff- und NAhrelementhaushalt der Gesamtpflanze) A-kosystemkunde (A-kosystemtheorie und die Pflanze als Teil von A-kosystemen) SynAkologie (Populationsbiologie der Pflanzen und VegetationsAkologie) Globale Aspekte der PflanzenAkologie (StoffkreislAufe, internationale Abkommen und sozioAkonomische Wechselwirkungen) Die A-kophysiologie untersucht Pflanzen am natA1/4rlichen Standort, bei denen mehr oder weniger starker Stress auf den Organismus einwirkt. In der molekularen A-kophysiologie wird der Einfluss von abiotischem und biotischem Stress zell- und molekularbiologisch bis hin zu den Genen verfolgt. SchAden und Anpassungen werden in der molekularen Dimension betrachtet. Hier beginnt das VerstAndnis fA1/4r die Vielfalt, mit der Pflanzen auf die Lebensbedingungen auf der Erde reagieren. In der AutAkologie kommen auf der Ebene der Einzelpflanze Struktur und Architektur als MAglichkeiten der Anpassung hinzu, auf der Ebene der A-kosysteme gewinnt auch die biologische und abiotische Umgebung zusAtzlichen Einfluss. Dies leitet A1/4ber zur Populationsbiologie und VegetationsAkologie, die die rAumliche Verteilung von Arten, die zeitliche Dynamik der AktivitAt und die biologischen Interaktionen berA1/4cksichtigen. Damit erreicht die PflanzenAkologie die Ebene der globalen StoffkreislAufe, die vor allem in Hinblick auf die anthropogenen Eingriffe in die Natur und die sich abzeichnende Bewirtschaftung des Kohlenstoffkreislaufs dargestellt werden. Das Buch behandelt nicht nur natA1/4rliche Vegetationen, sondern auch Akologische Aspekte der Land- und Forstwirtschaft. Das Lehrbuch der PflanzenAkologie richtet sich vor allem an Biologiestudenten sowie Wissenschaftler der Botanik, der Geowissenschaften und der LandschaftsAkologie. Es ist auch gedacht als Grundlage fA1/4r alle, die mit Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Landnutzung und mit Eingriffen in die Landschaft zu tun haben.

The Purple Phototrophic Bacteria

Author: C.N. Hunter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402088159
Size: 55.32 MB
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Here is a comprehensive survey of all aspects of these fascinating bacteria, metabolically the most versatile organisms on Earth. It compiles 48 chapters written by leading experts, who highlight the huge progress made in studies of these bacteria since 1995.

Photosynthesis In Silico

Author: Agu Laisk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402092377
Size: 24.88 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Photosynthesis in silico: Understanding Complexity from Molecules to Ecosystems is a unique book that aims to show an integrated approach to the understanding of photosynthesis processes. In this volume - using mathematical modeling - processes are described from the biophysics of the interaction of light with pigment systems to the mutual interaction of individual plants and other organisms in canopies and large ecosystems, up to the global ecosystem issues. Chapters are written by 44 international authorities from 15 countries. Mathematics is a powerful tool for quantitative analysis. Properly programmed, contemporary computers are able to mimic complicated processes in living cells, leaves, canopies and ecosystems. These simulations - mathematical models - help us predict the photosynthetic responses of modeled systems under various combinations of environmental conditions, potentially occurring in nature, e.g., the responses of plant canopies to globally increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Tremendous analytical power is needed to understand nature's infinite complexity at every level.

Photosynthesis In Bryophytes And Early Land Plants

Author: David T. Hanson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400769881
Size: 72.84 MB
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Bryophytes, which are important constituents of ecosystems globally and often dominate carbon and water dynamics at high latitudes and elevations, were also among the pioneers of terrestrial photosynthesis. Consequently, in addition to their present day ecological value, modern representatives of these groups contain the legacy of adaptations that led to the greening of Earth. This volume brings together experts on bryophyte photosynthesis whose research spans the genome and cell through whole plant and ecosystem function and combines that with historical perspectives on the role of algal, bryophyte and vascular plant ancestors on terrestrialization of the Earth. The eighteen well-illustrated chapters reveal unique physiological approaches to achieving carbon balance and dealing with environmental limitations and stresses that present an alternative, yet successful strategy for land plants.