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Plant Respiration

Author: Hans Lambers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402035896
Size: 59.27 MB
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Respiration in plants, as in all living organisms, is essential to provide metabolic energy and carbon skeletons for growth and maintenance. As such, respiration is an essential component of a plant’s carbon budget. Depending on species and environmental conditions, it consumes 25-75% of all the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis – even more at extremely slow growth rates. Respiration in plants can also proceed in a manner that produces neither metabolic energy nor carbon skeletons, but heat. This type of respiration involves the cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase; it is unique to plants, and resides in the mitochondria. The activity of this alternative pathway can be measured based on a difference in fractionation of oxygen isotopes between the cytochrome and the alternative oxidase. Heat production is important in some flowers to attract pollinators; however, the alternative oxidase also plays a major role in leaves and roots of most plants. A common thread throughout this volume is to link respiration, including alternative oxidase activity, to plant functioning in different environments.

Plant Respiration Metabolic Fluxes And Carbon Balance

Author: Guillaume Tcherkez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319687034
Size: 56.60 MB
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There are currently intense efforts devoted to understand plant respiration (from genes toecosystems) and its regulatory mechanisms; this is because respiratory CO2 productionrepresents a substantial carbon loss in crops and in natural ecosystems. Thus, in addition tomanipulating photosynthesis to increase plant biomass production, minimization ofrespiratory loss should be considered in plant science and engineering. However, respiratorymetabolic pathways are at the heart of energy and carbon skeleton production and therefore, itis an essential component of carbon metabolism sustaining key processes such asphotosynthesis. The overall goal of this book is to provide an insight in such interactions aswell as an up-to-date view on respiratory metabolism, taking advantage of recent advancesand concepts, from fluxomics to natural isotopic signal of plant CO2 efflux. It is thus a nonoverlapping,complement to Volume 18 in this series (Plant Respiration From Cell toEcosystem) which mostly deals with mitochondrial electron fluxes and plant-scale respiratorylosses.

Photosynthesis In Bryophytes And Early Land Plants

Author: David T. Hanson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400769881
Size: 58.34 MB
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Bryophytes, which are important constituents of ecosystems globally and often dominate carbon and water dynamics at high latitudes and elevations, were also among the pioneers of terrestrial photosynthesis. Consequently, in addition to their present day ecological value, modern representatives of these groups contain the legacy of adaptations that led to the greening of Earth. This volume brings together experts on bryophyte photosynthesis whose research spans the genome and cell through whole plant and ecosystem function and combines that with historical perspectives on the role of algal, bryophyte and vascular plant ancestors on terrestrialization of the Earth. The eighteen well-illustrated chapters reveal unique physiological approaches to achieving carbon balance and dealing with environmental limitations and stresses that present an alternative, yet successful strategy for land plants.

The Chloroplast

Author: Constantin A. Rebeiz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048185313
Size: 53.22 MB
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As the industrial revolution that has been based on by higher photosynthetic efficiencies and more utilization of fossil fuels nears its end [R. A. Ker biomass production per unit area. (2007) Even oil optimists expect energy demand to According to Times Magazine (April 30, 2007 outstrip supply. Science 317: 437], the next indus- issue), one fifth of the US corn crop is presently trial revolution will most likely need development converted into ethanol, which is considered to burn of alternate sources of clean energy. In addition cleaner than gasoline and to produce less gre- to the development of hydroelectric power, these house gases. In order to meet a target of 35 billion efforts will probably include the conversion of gallons of ethanol produced by the year 2017, the wind, sea wave motion and solar energy [Solar Day entire US corn crop would need to be turned into in the Sun (2007) Business week, October 15, pp fuel. But crops such as corn and sugarcane cannot 69–76] into electrical energy. The most promising yield enough to produce all the needed fuel. F- of those will probably be based on the full usage thermore, even if all available starch is converted of solar energy. The latter is likely to be plenti- into fuel, it would only produce about 10% of ful for the next 2–3 billion years. Most probably, our gasoline needs [R. F.

Chlorophyll A Fluorescence

Author: G.C. Papageorgiou
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402032188
Size: 76.70 MB
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Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthesis highlights chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence as a convenient, non-invasive, highly sensitive, rapid and quantitative probe of oxygenic photosynthesis. Thirty-one chapters, authored by 58 international experts, provide a solid foundation of the basic theory, as well as of the application of the rich information contained in the Chl a fluorescence signal as it relates to photosynthesis and plant productivity. Although the primary photochemical reactions of photosynthesis are highly efficient, a small fraction of absorbed photons escapes as Chl fluorescence, and this fraction varies with metabolic state, providing a basis for monitoring quantitatively various processes of photosynthesis. The book explains the mechanisms with which plants defend themselves against environmental stresses (excessive light, extreme temperatures, drought, hyper-osmolarity, heavy metals and UV). It also includes discussion on fluorescence imaging of leaves and cells and the remote sensing of Chl fluorescence from terrestrial, airborne, and satellite bases. The book is intended for use by graduate students, beginning researchers and advanced undergraduates in the areas of integrative plant biology, cellular and molecular biology, plant biology, biochemistry, biophysics, plant physiology, global ecology and agriculture.

Canopy Photosynthesis From Basics To Applications

Author: Kouki Hikosaka
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401772916
Size: 29.61 MB
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The last 30 years has seen the development of increasingly sophisticated models that quantify canopy carbon exchange. These models are now essential parts of larger models for prediction and simulation of crop production, climate change, and regional and global carbon dynamics. There is thus an urgent need for increasing expertise in developing, use and understanding of these models. This in turn calls for an advanced, yet easily accessible textbook that summarizes the “canopy science” and introduces the present and the future scientists to the theoretical background of the current canopy models. This book presents current knowledge of functioning of plant canopies, models and strategies employed to simulate canopy function, and the significance of canopy architecture, physiology and dynamics in ecosystems, landscape and biosphere.

Photosynthesis

Author: David W. Lawlor
Publisher: Bios Scientific Pub Limited
ISBN: 9780387916071
Size: 80.24 MB
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Photosynthesis is described here by considering the processes involved throughout the various levels of plants -- cellular, organelle and molecular. It also considers the biochemical events which take place in the photosynthetic system and explains how these determine the psychological characteristics of plant productivity.

Genomics Of Chloroplasts And Mitochondria

Author: Ralph Bock
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400729200
Size: 43.39 MB
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The past decade has witnessed an explosion of our knowledge on the structure, coding capacity and evolution of the genomes of the two DNA-containing cell organelles in plants: chloroplasts (plastids) and mitochondria. Comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the origin of organelles by endosymbioses and uncovered an enormous evolutionary dynamics of organellar genomes. In addition, they have greatly helped to clarify phylogenetic relationships, especially in algae and early land plants with limited morphological and anatomical diversity. This book, written by leading experts, summarizes our current knowledge about plastid and mitochondrial genomes in all major groups of algae and land plants. It also includes chapters on endosymbioses, plastid and mitochondrial mutants, gene expression profiling and methods for organelle transformation. The book is designed for students and researchers in plant molecular biology, taxonomy, biotechnology and evolutionary biology.

Photosynthesis

Author: Julian J. Eaton-Rye
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400715790
Size: 47.27 MB
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“Photosynthesis: Plastid Biology, Energy Conversion and Carbon Assimilation” was conceived as a comprehensive treatment touching on most of the processes important for photosynthesis. Most of the chapters provide a broad coverage that, it is hoped, will be accessible to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers looking to broaden their knowledge of photosynthesis. For biologists, biochemists, and biophysicists, this volume will provide quick background understanding for the breadth of issues in photosynthesis that are important in research and instructional settings. This volume will be of interest to advanced undergraduates in plant biology, and plant biochemistry and to graduate students and instructors wanting a single reference volume on the latest understanding of the critical components of photosynthesis.

Respiration In Archaea And Bacteria

Author: Davide Zannoni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402031637
Size: 76.43 MB
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The book summarizes the achievements of the past decade in the biochemistry, bioenergetics, structural and molecular biology of respiratory processes in selected genera of the domain Bacteria along with an extensive coverage of the redox chains of extremophiles belonging to the Archaean domain. The volume is a unique piece of work since it contains a series of chapters dealing with metabolic features having important microbiological and ecological relevance such as the use of ammonium, iron, methane, sulfur and hydrogen as respiratory substrates or nitrous compounds in denitrification processes. Particular attention is also dedicated to peculiar groups of prokaryotes such as Gram positives, acetic acid bacteria, pathogens of the genera Helicobacter and Campylobacter, nitrogen fixing symbionts and free-living species, oxygenic phototrophs (Cyanobacteria) and anoxygenic (purple non-sulfur) phototrophs. The book is intended to be a long-term source of information for Ph.D. students, researchers and undergraduates from disciplines such as microbiology, biochemistry and ecology, studying basic and applied sciences, medicine and agriculture.