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Plastics From Bacteria

Author: George Guo-Qiang Chen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642032875
Size: 60.77 MB
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Due to the possibility that petroleum supplies will be exhausted in the next decades to come, more and more attention has been paid to the production of bacterial pl- tics including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polylactic acid (PLA), poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), biopolyethylene (PE), poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT), and poly(p-phenylene) (PPP). These are well-studied polymers containing at least one monomer synthesized via bacterial transformation. Among them, PHA, PLA and PBS are well known for their biodegradability, whereas PE, PTT and PPP are probably less biodegradable or are less studied in terms of their biodegradability. Over the past years, their properties and appli- tions have been studied in detail and products have been developed. Physical and chemical modifications to reduce their cost or to improve their properties have been conducted. PHA is the only biopolyester family completely synthesized by biological means. They have been investigated by microbiologists, molecular biologists, b- chemists, chemical engineers, chemists, polymer experts, and medical researchers for many years. PHA applications as bioplastics, fine chemicals, implant biomate- als, medicines, and biofuels have been developed. Companies have been est- lished for or involved in PHA related R&D as well as large scale production. It has become clear that PHA and its related technologies form an industrial value chain in fermentation, materials, feeds, and energy to medical fields.

Natural And Synthetic Biomedical Polymers

Author: Sangamesh Kumbar
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0123972906
Size: 13.90 MB
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Polymers are important and attractive biomaterials for researchers and clinical applications due to the ease of tailoring their chemical, physical and biological properties for target devices. Due to this versatility they are rapidly replacing other classes of biomaterials such as ceramics or metals. As a result, the demand for biomedical polymers has grown exponentially and supports a diverse and highly monetized research community. Currently worth $1.2bn in 2009 (up from $650m in 2000), biomedical polymers are expected to achieve a CAGR of 9.8% until 2015, supporting a current research community of approximately 28,000+. Summarizing the main advances in biopolymer development of the last decades, this work systematically covers both the physical science and biomedical engineering of the multidisciplinary field. Coverage extends across synthesis, characterization, design consideration and biomedical applications. The work supports scientists researching the formulation of novel polymers with desirable physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties for specific targeted biomedical applications. Combines chemistry, biology and engineering for expert and appropriate integration of design and engineering of polymeric biomaterials Physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties alongside currently deployed clinical applications of specific biomaterials aids use as single source reference on field. 15+ case studies provides in-depth analysis of currently used polymeric biomaterials, aiding design considerations for the future

Recent Advances In Biotechnology Volume 2 Microbial Biopolyester Production Performance And Processing Bioengineering Characterization And Sustainability

Author: Martin Koller
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
ISBN: 1681083736
Size: 26.34 MB
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Global plastic production is estimated to be over 300Mt annually. Most conventional plastics are predominantly produced from fossil fuels and are highly resistant to biodegradation, and only a small share of about 20% of spent plastics is believed to be recycled, which is a cause for environmental concern. Biodegradable plastics would solve this concern as they are a sustainable alternative, yet these do not even cover 5% of the global plastic market. Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a versatile group of polyesters produced by nature as prokaryotic storage materials. PHAs can be produced through sustainable bioprocess engineering and have displayed remarkable flexibility in their physical and chemical properties. PHAs are the subject of several scientific papers and numerous PHA patents have also been filed, generating significant interest in the plastic production industry. To develop overall sustainable and efficient production processes, all bioprocess steps need to be thoroughly understood and accounted for. These processes start with the selection of suitable inexpensive raw materials (microbes and enzymes), optimizing the process engineering and process regime, and conclude with the enhancement of product recovery in terms of time, energy, and material input. Microbial Biopolyester Production, Performance and Processing: Bioengineering, Characterization, and Sustainability is a compilation of eight chapters covering bacterial polyesters, green plastics and PHAs from various angles. The contents of this volume focus on sustainable practices focus on the sustainability of processes that involve the synthesis and recycling of these meterials. The volume is a useful resource for bioprocess engineers, microbiologists, biotechnologists and chemical engineers interested in the basics of biodegradable plastic production.

Handbook Of Biopolymers And Biodegradable Plastics

Author: Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1455728349
Size: 35.56 MB
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This new Handbook provides engineers and scientists with the information and practical guidance needed to successfully design and manufacture products using biopolymers and biodegradable plastics. Biopolymers and biodegradable plastics are a hot issue across the plastics industry, and for many of the industry sectors that use plastic: from packaging to medical devices and from the construction industry to the automotive sector. This book brings together in one place a number of key biopolymer and biodegradable plastics topics-in chapters previously published as well as updated and new chapters-for a broad audience of engineers of and scientists, especially those designing with biopolymers and biodegradable plastics or evaluating the options for switching from traditional plastics to biopolymers. Topics covered include preparation, fabrication, applications and recycling (including biodegradability and compostability). Applications in key areas such as films, coatings, controlled release, and tissue engineering are discussed.

Antimicrobial Food Packaging

Author: Jorge Barros-Velazquez
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128008105
Size: 72.27 MB
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Antimicrobial Food Packaging takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a complete and robust understanding of packaging from some of the most well-known international experts. This practical reference provides basic information and practical applications for the potential uses of various films in food packaging, describes the different types of microbial targets (fungal, bacteria, etc.), and focuses on the applicability of techniques to industry. Tactics on the monitoring of microbial activity that use antimicrobial packaging detection of food borne pathogens, the use of biosensors, and testing antimicrobial susceptibility are also included, along with food safety and good manufacturing practices. The book aims to curtail the development of microbiological contamination of food through anti-microbial packaging to improve the safety in the food supply chain. Presents the science behind anti-microbial packaging and films reflecting advancements in chemistry, microbiology, and food science Includes the most up-to-date information on regulatory aspects, consumer acceptance, research trends, cost analysis, risk analysis and quality control Discusses the uses of natural and unnatural compounds for food safety and defense

Tuberculosis And Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

Author: David Schlossberg
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
ISBN: 1555815138
Size: 20.58 MB
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The most popular reference among physicians for understanding and treating tuberculosis. • Presents the current science and tools available in the fight against tuberculosis, including drug-resistant forms, from international experts. • Features the latest preventive strategies, including vaccine development and explores the effect of tuberculosis on organ systems and value of surgery. • Examines present-day epidemiologic and public health issues, including airline-associated infection, tuberculosis in the developing world, and the role of the World Health Organization and departments of public health.

Inclusions In Prokaryotes

Author: Jessup M. Shively
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540337741
Size: 53.61 MB
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The new series "Microbiology Monographs" begins with two volumes on intracellular components in prokaryotes. In this first volume, "Inclusions in Prokaryotes", the components, labeled inclusions, are defined as discrete bodies resulting from synthesis of a metabolic product. Research on the biosynthesis and reutilization of the accumulated materials is still in progress, and interest in the inclusions is growing. This comprehensive volume provides historical background and comprehensive reviews of eight well-known prokaryotic inclusions.

Fermented Foods In Health And Disease Prevention

Author: Juana Frías
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128025492
Size: 20.41 MB
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Fermented Foods in Health and Disease Prevention is the first scientific reference that addresses the properties of fermented foods in nutrition by examining their underlying microbiology, the specific characteristics of a wide variety of fermented foods, and their effects in health and disease. The current awareness of the link between diet and health drives growth in the industry, opening new commercial opportunities. Coverage in the book includes the role of microorganisms that are involved in the fermentation of bioactive and potentially toxic compounds, their contribution to health-promoting properties, and the safety of traditional fermented foods. Authored by worldwide scientists and researchers, this book provides the food industry with new insights on the development of value-added fermented foods products, while also presenting nutritionists and dieticians with a useful resource to help them develop strategies to assist in the prevention of disease or to slow its onset and severity. Provides a comprehensive review on current findings in the functional properties and safety of traditional fermented foods and their impact on health and disease prevention Identifies bioactive microorganisms and components in traditional fermented food Includes focused key facts, helpful glossaries, and summary points for each chapter Presents food processors and product developers with opportunities for the development of fermented food products Helps readers develop strategies that will assist in preventing or slowing disease onset and severity

Endo Symbiotic Methanogenic Archaea

Author: Johannes H.P. Hackstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642136153
Size: 69.83 MB
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Methanogens are prokaryotic microorganisms that produce methane as an end-product of a complex biochemical pathway. They are strictly anaerobic archaea and occupy a wide variety of anoxic environments. Methanogens also thrive in the cytoplasm of anaerobic unicellular eukaryotes and in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. The symbiotic methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other “methanogenic” mammals contribute significantly to the global methane budget. This monograph deals with methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic protists, in particular ciliates and termite flagellates, and with methanogens in the gastrointestinal tracts of vertebrates and arthropods. Further reviews discuss the genomic consequences of living together in symbiotic associations, the role of methanogens in syntrophic degradation, and the function and evolution of hydrogenosomes, hydrogen-producing organelles of certain anaerobic protists.

Cheese And Microbes

Author: Catherine W. Donnelly
Publisher: ASM Press
ISBN: 1555818595
Size: 21.29 MB
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A scientific overview of the association of microbes with cheese, through the lens of select cheese varieties that result due to surface mold ripening, internal mold ripening, rind washing, cave aging, or surface smear rind development. Over the past decade, there has been explosive growth in the U.S. artisan cheese industry. The editor, Ms. Donnelly, was involved in developing a comprehensive education curriculum for those new to cheese making, which focused on the science of cheese, principally to promote cheese quality and safety. Many of the chapters in this book focus on aspects of that requisite knowledge. • Explains the process of transformation of milk to cheese and how sensory attributes of cheese are evaluated. • Provides an overview of cheese safety and regulations governing cheese making, both in the US and abroad, to ensure safety. • Explores how the tools of molecular biology provide new insights into the complexity of the microbial biodiversity of cheeses. • Examines the biodiversity of traditional cheeses as a result of traditional practices, and overviews research on the stability of the microbial consortium of select traditional cheese varieties. • Key text for cheese makers, scientists, students, and cheese enthusiasts who wish to expand their knowledge of cheeses and traditional foods.