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Pointing

Author: Sotaro Kita
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135642133
Size: 56.55 MB
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Pointing has captured the interest of scholars from various fields who study communication. However, ideas and findings have been scattered across diverse publications in different disciplines, and opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange have been very limited. The editor's aim is to provide an arena for such exchange by bringing together papers on pointing gestures from disciplines, such as developmental psychology, psycholinguistics, sign-language linguistics, linguistic anthropology, conversational analysis, and primatology. Questions raised by the editors include: *Do chimpanzees produce and comprehend pointing gestures in the same way as humans? *What are cross-cultural variations of pointing gestures? *In what sense are pointing gestures human universal? *What is the relationship between the development of pointing and language in children? *What linguistic roles do pointing gestures play in signed language? *Why do speakers sometimes point to seemingly empty space in front of them during conversation? *How do pointing gestures contribute to the unfolding of face-to-face interaction that involves objects in the environment? *What are the semiotic processes that relate what is pointed at and what is actually "meant" by the pointing gesture (the relationship between the two are often not as simple as one might think)? *Do pointing gestures facilitate the production of accompanying speech? The volume can be used as a required text in a course on gestural communication with multidisciplinary perspectives. It can also be used as a supplemental text in an advanced undergraduate or graduate course on interpersonal communication, cross-cultural communication, language development, and psychology of language.

Space In Language And Cognition

Author: Stephen C. Levinson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521011969
Size: 39.60 MB
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Spatial orientation and direction are core areas of human and animal thinking. But, unlike animals, human populations vary considerably in their spatial thinking. Revealing that these differences correlate with language (which is probably mostly responsible for the different cognitive styles), this book includes many cross-cultural studies investigating spatial memory, reasoning, types of gesture and wayfinding abilities. It explains the relationship between language and cognition and cross-cultural differences in thinking to students of language and the cognitive sciences.

Gestural Communication In Nonhuman And Human Primates

Author: Katja Liebal
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027291861
Size: 57.50 MB
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Research into gestures represents a multifaceted field comprising a wide range of disciplines and research topics, varying methods and approaches, and even different species such as humans, apes and monkeys. The aim of this volume (originally published as a Special Issue of Gesture 5:1/2 (2005)) is to bring together the research in gestural communication in both nonhuman and human primates and to explore the potential of a comparative approach and its contribution to the question of an evolutionary scenario in which gestures play a significant role. The topics covered include the spontaneous natural gesture use in social groups of apes and monkeys, but also during interactions with humans, gestures of preverbal children and their interaction with language, speech-accompanying gestures in humans as well as the use of sign-language in human and nonhuman great apes. It addresses researchers with a background in Psychology, Primatology, Linguistics, and Anthropology, but it might also function as an introduction and a documentation state of the art for a wider less specialised audience which is fascinated by the role gestures might have played in the evolution of human language.

Perspectives On Classifier Constructions In Sign Languages

Author: Karen Emmorey
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135632960
Size: 79.21 MB
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Classifier constructions are universal to sign languages and exhibit unique properties that arise from the nature of the visual-gestural modality. The major goals are to bring to light critical issues related to the study of classifier constructions and to present state-of-the-art linguistic and psycholinguistic analyses of these constructions. It is hoped that by doing so, more researchers will be inspired to investigate the nature of classifier constructions across signed languages and further explore the unique aspects of these forms. The papers in this volume discuss the following issues: *how sign language classifiers differ from spoken languages; *cross-linguistic variation in sign language classifier systems; *the role of gesture; *the nature of morpho-syntactic and phonological constraints on classifier constructions; *the grammaticization process for these forms; and *the acquisition of classifier forms. Divided into four parts, groups of papers focus on a particular set of issues, and commentary papers end each section.

The Anatomy Of Meaning

Author: N. J. Enfield
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521880645
Size: 26.46 MB
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This 2009 study examines how words combine with hand gestures and other bodily movements to create unified 'composite utterances'.

Toddler And Parent Interaction

Author: Anna Filipi
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027254362
Size: 73.81 MB
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"This book provides a microanalysis of the interactions between four children and their parents starting when the children were aged 9 to 13 months and ending when they were 18 months old. It tracks development as an issue for and of interaction. In so doing, it uncovers the details of the organisation of the sequence structure of the interactions, and exposes the workings of language and social development as they unfold in everyday activities. The study begins with a description of pre-verbal children's sequences of action and then tracks those sequences as linguistic ability increases. The analysis reveals a developing richness and complexity of the sequence structure and exposes a gap in Child Language studies that focus on the children's and their carers' actions in isolation from their sequential environment. By focusing on the initiating actions of both child and parent, and the response to those actions, and by capturing the details of how both verbal and nonverbal actions are organised in the larger sequences of talk, a more complete picture emerges of how adept the young child is at co-creating meaning in highly organised ways well before words start to surface. The study also uncovers pursuit of a response, and orientation to insufficiency and adequacy of response, as defining characteristics of these early interactions."--Publisher's website.

The Evolution Of Social Communication In Primates

Author: Marco Pina
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319026690
Size: 58.76 MB
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How did social communication evolve in primates? In this volume, primatologists, linguists, anthropologists, cognitive scientists and philosophers of science systematically analyze how their specific disciplines demarcate the research questions and methodologies involved in the study of the evolutionary origins of social communication in primates in general and in humans in particular. In the first part of the book, historians and philosophers of science address how the epistemological frameworks associated with primate communication and language evolution studies have changed over time and how these conceptual changes affect our current studies on the subject matter. In the second part, scholars provide cutting-edge insights into the various means through which primates communicate socially in both natural and experimental settings. They examine the behavioral building blocks by which primates communicate and they analyze what the cognitive requirements are for displaying communicative acts. Chapters highlight cross-fostering and language experiments with primates, primate mother-infant communication, the display of emotions and expressions, manual gestures and vocal signals, joint attention, intentionality and theory of mind. The primary focus of the third part is on how these various types of communicative behavior possibly evolved and how they can be understood as evolutionary precursors to human language. Leading scholars analyze how both manual and vocal gestures gave way to mimetic and imitational protolanguage and how the latter possibly transitioned into human language. In the final part, we turn to the hominin lineage, and anthropologists, archeologists and linguists investigate what the necessary neurocognitive, anatomical and behavioral features are in order for human language to evolve and how language differs from other forms of primate communication.

Dog Behaviour Evolution And Cognition

Author: Adam Miklosi
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191045721
Size: 39.51 MB
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This is the first book to collate and synthesize the recent burgeoning primary research literature on dog behaviour, evolution, and cognition. The author presents a new ecological approach to the understanding of dog behaviour, demonstrating how dogs can be the subject of rigorous and productive scientific study without the need to confine them to a laboratory environment. This second, fully updated edition of Dog Behaviour, Evolution and Cognition starts with an overview of the conceptual and methodological issues associated with the study of the dog, followed by a brief description of their role in human society. An evolutionary perspective is then introduced with a summary of current research into the process of domestication. The central part of the book is devoted to issues relating to the cognitive aspects of behaviour which have received particular attention in recent years from both psychologists and ethologists. The book's final chapters introduce the reader to many novel approaches to dog behaviour, set in the context of behavioural development and genetics. This second edition recognises and discusses the fact that dogs are increasingly being used as model organisms for studying aspects of human biology, such as genetic diseases and ageing. Specific attention is also given in this edition to attachment behaviour which emerges between humans and dogs, the importance of inter-specific communication in the success of dogs in human communities and the broad aspects of social cognition and how this may contribute to human-dog cooperation Directions for future research are highlighted throughout the text which also incorporates links to human and primate research by drawing on homologies and analogies in both evolution and behaviour. The book will therefore be of relevance and use to anyone with an interest in behavioural ecology including graduate students of animal behaviour and cognition, as well as a more general audience of dog enthusiasts, biologists, psychologists, veterinarians, and sociologists.

Research Methods In Child Language

Author: Erika Hoff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444344013
Size: 49.30 MB
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This is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the methods researchers use to study child language, written by experienced scholars in the study of language development. Presents a comprehensive survey of laboratory and naturalistic techniques used in the study of different domains of language, age ranges, and populations, and explains the questions addressed by each technique Presents new research methods, such as the use of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to study the activity of the brain Expands on more traditional research methods such as collection, transcription, and coding of speech samples that have been transformed by new hardware and software

The Handbook Of Language Emergence

Author: Brian MacWhinney
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118346092
Size: 56.46 MB
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This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever