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Police Reform In China

Author: Kam C. Wong
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143981970X
Size: 71.23 MB
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With nearly 20 percent of the world’s population located in China, what happens there is significant to all nations. Sweeping changes have altered the cultural landscape of China, and as opportunities for wealth have grown in recent years, so have opportunities for crime. Police Reform in China provides a rare and insightful glimpse of policing in the midst of such change. The book begins with a historical account of police reform in the region since 2000. Next, it discusses the difficulties encountered in trying to understand Chinese policing, such as outdated perceptions, misinformation, cultural ignorance, ideological hegemony, and problems with paternalistic attitudes. The book recommends studying China from a local perspective informed by local research and data, suggesting that understanding China requires a cultural shift to the Chinese way of life in "thinking" and, more importantly, "feeling." The author then summarizes selected policy papers from Gongan Yanjiu, a leading international policy journal. He first documents how the thinking and aspirations of various generations of Chinese leaders from Mao to Deng, and now Jiang and Hu, came to affect Chinese policing in theory and practice. He then addresses the emergence of a police legitimacy crisis as evidenced by the deterioration of public image and rebellions against police authority. Demonstrating how old ideologies are increasingly in conflict with the values and lifestyles of a new mentality, the book discusses steps that can be taken to improve professionalism. The final chapters investigate such problems as abuses of discretion and the improper use of firearms and highlight the importance of understanding the Chinese people, culture, values, and interests in order to truly effectuate successful police reform.

Policing In Hong Kong

Author: Kam C. Wong
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439896445
Size: 31.47 MB
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The HKP (Hong Kong Police), ‘Asia’s Finest’, is a battle-tested professional organization with strong leadership, competent staff, and deep culture. It is also a continuously learning and reforming agency in pursuit of organisational excellence. Policing in Hong Kong: History and Reform is the first and only book on the development of the Hong Kong Police from an inside out and bottom up perspective. Written by a scholar and veteran of the HKP, it is an amalgamation of indigenous theory and supporting data. Part One begins by describing the development of police studies in Hong Kong as an emerging field since the 1990s. It supplies an analytical and empirical construct of colonial policing as well as a theoretical assessment. It discusses the nature, topologies, conduct, impact, and assessment of police reform. The book demonstrates how colonial policing in Hong Kong and elsewhere takes on the community’s local color and hue in practice. Colonial policing in Hong Kong is "policing with Chinese characteristics." Part Two tracks the history of the HKP’s formation in the 1840s and examines how colonial policing in Hong Kong has changed over time. It describes the HKP’s four distinctive reform periods: the formation period (1845), the reorganisation period (1872), the modernisation period (1950s), and finally, the decolonisation period (1990s). It argues that HKP reform in the1950s was the pivotal point in transforming the HKP from a colonial force into a civil one by way of localisation, legalisation, modernisation, communalisation, and organisation. Overall, the book questions previously accepted colonial history, and in doing so, contributes to our understanding of challenges and opportunities facing HKP after the reversion of political authority from England to China.

Police And Society In Brazil

Author: Vicente Riccio
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351650157
Size: 26.24 MB
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In Brazil, where crime is closely associated with social inequality and failure of the criminal justice system, the police are considered by most to be corrupt, inefficient, and violent, especially when occupying poor areas, and they lack the widespread legitimacy enjoyed by police forces in many nations in the northern hemisphere. This text covers hot-button issues like urban pacification squads, gangs, and drugs, as well as practical topics such as policy, dual civil and military models, and gender relations. The latest volume in the renowned Advances in Police Theory and Practice Series, Police and Society in Brazil fills a gap in English literature about policing in a nation that currently ranks sixth in number of homicides. It is a must-read for criminal justice practitioners, as well as students of international policing.

Police Performance Appraisals

Author: Serdar Kenan Gul
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466581115
Size: 76.95 MB
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Police performance appraisal is one of the most important components of law enforcement management—affecting the quality of the services a department delivers as well as the satisfaction of its employees. Therefore, it is crucial that the performance appraisal process is conducted in an effective and equitable manner. Police Performance Appraisals: A Comparative Perspective employs the comparative case study approach to evaluate systems in police departments in two diverse locales—Ankara, Turkey and Toledo, Ohio. The study seeks to determine whether there are any common trends or obvious similarities that transcend national and cultural boundaries. From this information, best practices can be identified to improve the system of any police organization. The data from the survey raises a host of issues essential to police management. Are traditional or modern appraisal systems more preferable to police personnel? Are field and command officers’ perceptions of the performance evaluation instruments in their departments similar or do they differ from those of their subordinates? Asking these and other critical questions, the authors also examine the relationship between the officer’s perception of the appraisal system and his or her rank, taking into account level of education, gender, age, and years of service. Employing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, this study yields important findings and valuable insights for police organizations as to which characteristics an appraisal process should have for the best quality system. Lessons learned from this study should provide guidance to future efforts to design better appraisal systems and may also contribute to heightened focus on nationwide assessments of evaluation practices and standards for police organizations.

Community Policing

Author: Dominique Wisler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420093599
Size: 42.98 MB
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Community-oriented policing (COP) is the ideology and policy model espoused in the mission statements of nearly all policing forces throughout the world. However, the COP philosophy is interpreted differently by different countries and police forces, resulting in practices that may in fact run far afield of the community-based themes of partnership, responsiveness, and transparency. Community Policing: International Patterns and Comparative Perspectives provides a comprehensive survey of purported practices of COP, clarifying the concept and differentiating true COP from other models which follow the ideology in name only. International contributors profile practices in five continents Using a case study approach, this eye-opening discourse reveals and examines contemporary patterns of alleged community policing across five continents. Providing insiders’ insight into the myriad practices in a variety of communities, the authors highlight the fact that policing in the countries profiled is heavily influenced by several factors. No matter how strongly the vision of COP permeates a police force’s mission, the significant factors that influence the policing culture are existing social and cultural traditions and structures, conventional methods already in place, the cultural and ideological language that sustains these practices, the efforts of entrepreneurs to argue for or against new ways of policing, and the social capital base found in the society. Arriving at the conclusion that there is no consensual model of community policing, the detailed analysis in this volume makes this absence of agreement abundantly clear. Separating rhetoric from reality, this illuminating study is a practical, realistic contribution to the expanding literature on community-oriented policing.

Police Investigative Interviews And Interpreting

Author: Sedat Mulayim
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482242559
Size: 55.80 MB
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Police interviews with suspects and witnesses provide some of the most significant evidence in criminal investigations. Frequently challenging, they require special training and skills. This interaction process is further complicated when the suspect or witness does not speak the same language as the interviewer. A professional reference that can be used in police training or in any venue where an interpreter is used, Police Investigative Interviews and Interpreting: Context, Challenges, and Strategies provides solutions for the range of interview demands found in today’s multilingual environments. Topics include: What interpreting is, the skills required, and the role of interpreters in any job context Investigative interviewing in law enforcement Concerns about interpreter intervention and its impact on interview outcomes The value of word-based over meaning-based interpretation in police and legal contexts Nonlinguistic factors that can have an impact on the interpreting process The book explores the multi-faceted dynamics of conducting investigative interviews via interpreters and examines current investigative interviewing paradigms. It offers strategies to help interpreters and law enforcement officers and provides examples of interpreted interview excerpts to enable understanding. Although the subject matter and the examples in this book are largely limited to police interview settings, the underlying rationale applies to other professional areas that rely on interviews to collect information, including customs procedures, employer-employee interviews, and insurance claim investigations. This book is part of the CRC Press Advances in Police Theory and Practice Series.

Crime Linkage

Author: Jessica Woodhams
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 146650675X
Size: 67.48 MB
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The increasing portrayal of forensic investigative techniques in the popular media—CSI, for example, has resulted in criminals becoming "forensically aware" and more careful about leaving behind physical evidence at a crime scene. This presents law enforcement with a significant problem: how can they detect serial offenders if they cannot rely on physical forensic evidence? One solution comes from psychology. A growing body of research has amassed in the area of behavioral consistency and the detection of serial offenders. A number of innovations are taking place in the field that have important implications for the practice of crime linkage and its use by police and the courts. Crime Linkage: Theory, Research, and Practice assembles this research and discusses its practical use. Topics include: Theoretical explanations for how, when, and why we may (or may not) see similarities in a person’s crime scene behavior Consistency and distinctiveness in sexual offending An overview of crime linkage research conducted to date The use of crime linkage in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and the United States New directions for research and practice, including linking across crime types to expand the suspect pool The range of statistical methods used in research of crime linkage principles The book represents a collaboration of researchers and practitioners from across the globe who are recognized as experts in the area of behavioral consistency and detection of serial offenders. They provide a comprehensive and informative text on the psychological and criminological theories underpinning crime linkage, how it is used in practice, the challenges practitioners face, and current innovations that will shape the future of crime linkage research and practice. This book is in the Advances in Police Theory and Practice series.

The Crime Numbers Game

Author: John A. Eterno
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466551704
Size: 69.58 MB
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In the mid-1990s, the NYPD created a performance management strategy known as Compstat. It consisted of computerized data, crime analysis, and advanced crime mapping coupled with middle management accountability and crime strategy meetings with high-ranking decision makers. While initially credited with a dramatic reduction in crime, questions quickly arose as to the reliability of the data. The Crime Numbers Game: Management by Manipulation brings together the work of two criminologists—one a former NYPD captain—who present the first in-depth empirical analysis of this management system—exposing the truth about crime statistics manipulation in the NYPD and the repercussions suffered by crime victims and those who blew the whistle on this corrupt practice. Providing insider insight into a system shrouded in secrecy, this volume: Documents and analyzes a wide array of data that definitively demonstrates the range of manipulation reflected in official New York City crime statistics Explores how the consequences of unreliable crime statistics ripple throughout police organizations, affecting police, citizens, and victims Documents the widening spell of police performance management throughout the world Reviews current NYPD leadership approaches and offers alternatives Analyzes the synchronicity of the media’s and the NYPD’s responses to the authors’ findings Explores the implications of various theoretical approaches to Compstat Offers a new approach based on organizational transparency Presenting a story of police reform gone astray, this book stunningly demonstrates how integrity succumbed to a short-term numbers game, casting a cloud on the department from which we can only hope it will emerge. For more information, check out the authors' blog, Unveiling Compstat, at blogspot.com and their website. Eterno and Silverman’s work in this book was cited in the article The Truth About Chicago’s Crime Rates: Part 2 in the June 2014 issue of Chicago magazine. The Authors in the News The authors' studies on crime were featured in a November 1, 2010 New York Times article and their comments were published on the editorial page. Their work was also cited in a November 30, 2010 Uptowner article about police manipulation of crime statistics. Silverman and Eterno described a proposed strategy for improving community confidence in the integrity of crime statistics in a January 24, 2011 Daily News article. On August 22, 2011, Eli Silverman commented on a recent rise in NYC crime statistics in a New York Post article. On November 29, 2011, the Village Voice featured an article written by Silverman and Eterno on crime statistics manipulation and recent corruption scandals. Eli Silverman was interviewed by the Plainview Patch in a December 20, 2011 article about people's perception of crime in a community. The book is cited in a February 23, 2012 Wall Street Journal article about a lawsuit filed by a NYPD officer. John Eterno was a featured guest on Talkzone Internet Talk Radio on February 25, 2012. Eli Silverman spoke in a February 27, 2012 NY1 Online video about concerns regarding NYPD's stop and frisk policy. The book was profiled in a February 27, 2012 article in The Chief, a weekly newspaper for New York civil service employees. The authors appeared on a March 26, 2012 local ABC news program about underreported crime rates. thePolipit blog discussed the book on April 2, 2012. John Eterno was quoted in an April 9, 2012 New York Times article about the NYPD's stop-and-frisk policy. Eli Silverman was quoted in a May 2, 2012 DNAinfo.com article about rising New York City crime rates. A New York Times Op-Ed piece referenced Eli Silverman on May 13, 2012. John Eterno's Op-Ed piece entitled "Policing by the Numbers" appeared in the New York Times on June 17, 2012. The book was cited in a June 19, 2012 Mother Jones article. John Eterno was featured in a Reuters TV program about the NYPD's "stop and frisk" policy. Eli Silverman testified on April 4, 2013 in a class action lawsuit related to the NYPD stop and frisk policy. On July 14, 2014, an article written by John Eterno and Eli Silversman about Police Commissioner Bratton's stop-and-frisk policy appeared in the New York Daily News.

Los Angeles Police Department Meltdown

Author: James Lasley
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466575875
Size: 31.17 MB
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Once considered among the most respected police departments in the world, the LAPD suffered a devastating fall from grace following the 1991 police officer beating of Rodney King and the Los Angeles riots stemming from the officers’ acquittal in 1992. Unique to the literature of policing, management, and policy studies, Los Angeles Police Department Meltdown: The Fall of the Professional-Reform Model of Policing presents what can be considered the first and only existing research document truly explaining the reasons behind the LAPD’s demise. The book reveals a special inside study performed by the author under the exclusive authority of LAPD Chief of Police Daryl Gates to investigate why the department had begun to disintegrate following the Rodney King incident, and how, if possible, it could be salvaged. The findings presented are based on first-hand written accounts of LAPD officer informants who describe their observations of the department’s meltdown as it occurred. These accounts explain why the crime-fighting enforcement style of the once highly regarded Professional-Reform Model of policing (coined at the LAPD) was abandoned in police departments across the nation in favor of the less aggressive community-based policing model. Lost for some 20 years under mysterious circumstances after collection and storage at the LAPD, these officer informant materials were recently retrieved and made available for analysis. They are presented in their entirety in this book. In every respect, this work is the final word on why and how the LAPD—a police organization emulated throughout the world—ultimately self-destructed after 41 years of serving and protecting the City of Angels.

Civilian Oversight Of Police

Author: Tim Prenzler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482234203
Size: 73.94 MB
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Exploring the complex and controversial topic of civilian oversight of police, this book analyzes the issues and debates entailed by civilian oversight by using worldwide perspectives, in-depth case studies, and a wealth of survey data. Integrating and summarizing decades of research from many locations around the globe, Civilian Oversight of Police: Advancing Accountability in Law Enforcement uses a very clear and consistent pattern of findings to address the overall management of police conduct. The book examines the history and performance of oversight agencies in multiple jurisdictions around the world. The evidence used includes: Citizen, complainant, and police views on oversight Stakeholder experiences with different types of responses to complaints Data about police conduct Emphasizing the concept of shared responsibility for effective police integrity management, the book discusses what does and does not work in maximizing police management and performance. It presents a best practices model for managing police conduct and describes the impact of oversight agencies on police policy, including innovative means by which agencies can work with police departments to improve police conduct. Civilian Oversight of Police provides a critical resource on police conduct for professionals as well as academics. It makes practical recommendations for achieving a "win-win" balance in addressing the needs and interests of all parties involved with the police complaints and accountability process. It also marks a starting point to stimulate further research as well as increased collaboration between researchers and practitioners to enhance the stock of knowledge for effective police integrity management and democratic accountability.