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Policy And Choice

Author: William J. Congdon
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815705017
Size: 72.49 MB
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Traditional public finance provides a powerful framework for policy analysis, but it relies on a model of human behavior that the new science of behavioral economics increasingly calls into question. In Policy and Choice economists William Congdon, Jeffrey Kling, and Sendhil Mullainathan argue that public finance not only can incorporate many lessons of behavioral economics but also can serve as a solid foundation from which to apply insights from psychology to questions of economic policy. The authors revisit the core questions of public finance, armed with a richer perspective on human behavior. They do not merely apply findings from psychology to specific economic problems; instead, they explore how psychological factors actually reshape core concepts in public finance such as moral hazard, deadweight loss, and incentives. Part one sets the stage for integrating behavioral economics into public finance by interpreting the evidence from psychology and developing a framework for applying it to questions in public finance. In part two, the authors apply that framework to specific topics in public finance, including social insurance, externalities and public goods, income support and redistribution, and taxation. In doing so, the authors build a unified analytical approach that encompasses both traditional policy levers, such as taxes and subsidies, and more psychologically informed instruments. The net result of this innovative approach is a fully behavioral public finance, an integration of psychology and the economics of the public sector that is explicit, systematic, rigorous, and realistic.

Economic Crisis And Policy Choice

Author: Joan M. Nelson
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691023106
Size: 17.68 MB
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The acute economic pressures of the 1980s have forced virtually all of Latin America and Africa and some countries in Asia into painful austerity programs and difficult economic reforms. Scholars have intensively analyzed the economics of this situation, but they have given much less attention to the political forces involved. In this volume a number of eminent contributors analyze the politics of adjustment in thirteen countries and nineteen governments, drawing comparisons not only across the full set of cases but also within clusters selected to clarify specific issues. Why do some governments respond promptly to signs of economic trouble, while others muddle indecisively for years? Why do some confine their response to temporary macroeconomic measures, while others adopt broader, even sweeping, programs of reform? What leads some countries to experiment with heterodox approaches, while most, however reluctantly, pursue orthodox courses? Why, confronted with intense political protest, have some governments persisted while others have altered or abandoned course? The answers to these questions are political, not economic, and they are examined here by Thomas M. Callaghy, Stephan Haggard, Miles Kahler, Robert R. Kauman, Joan M. Nelson, and Barbara Stallings.

Expert Advice For Policy Choice

Author: Duncan MacRae Jr.
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 9781589013179
Size: 39.25 MB
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Economic reasoning has thus far dominated the field of public policy analysis. This new introduction to the field posits that policy analysis should have both a broader interdisciplinary base—including criteria from such fields as political science, sociology, law, and philosophy, as well as economics—and also a broader audience in order to foster democratic debate. To achieve these goals, MacRae and Whittington have organized their textbook around the construction of decision matrices using multiple criteria, exploring the uses of the decision matrix formulation more fully than other texts. They describe how to set up the matrix, fill in cells and combine criteria, and use it as an aid for decision making. They show how ethical assessment of the affects that alternatives have on various parties differs from political analysis, and then they extend the use of the decision matrix to consider alternatives by affected parties, periods of time, or combined factors. The authors also thoughtfully address the role of expert advice in the policy process, widening the scope of the field to describe a complex system for the creation and use of knowledge in a democracy. An extended case study of HIV/AIDS policy follows each chapter (in installments), immediately illustrating the application of the material. The book also contains a glossary. Expert Advice for Policy Choice provides a new basis for graduate education in public policy analysis and can also serve as a text in planning, evaluation research, or public administration. In addition, it will be of interest to students and professionals wishing to aid policy choice who work in such fields as sociology, political science, psychology, public health, and social work.

Family Policy

Author: Shirley Zimmerman
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780761920939
Size: 31.60 MB
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The latest work from respected family policy expert Shirley Zimmerman. Family Policy offers the only single-authored reference book to provide a comprehensive and coherent introduction to the topic. The author clearly and cogently guides students through the foundations, policy frameworks, and implications of policy decisions for family well-being, ending with a carefully considered set of conclusions and implications for policy practice.

Ambiguity And Choice In Public Policy

Author: Nikolaos Zahariadis
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 9781589012363
Size: 76.66 MB
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Zahariadis offers a theory that explains policymaking when "ambiguity" is present—a state in which there are many ways, often irreconcilable, of thinking about an issue. Expanding and extending John Kingdon's influential "multiple streams" model that explains agenda setting, Zahariadis argues that manipulation, the bending of ideas, process, and beliefs to get what you want out of the policy process, is the key to understanding the dynamics of policymaking in conditions of ambiguity. He takes one of the major theories of public policy to the next step in three different ways: he extends it to a different form of government (parliamentary democracies, where Kingdon looked only at what he called the United States's presidential "organized anarchy" form of government); he examines the entire policy formation process, not just agenda setting; and he applies it to foreign as well as domestic policy. This book combines theory with cases to illuminate policymaking in a variety of modern democracies. The cases cover economic policymaking in Britain, France, and Germany, foreign policymaking in Greece, all compared to the U.S. (where the model was first developed), and an innovative computer simulation of the policy process.

Policy Entrepreneurs And School Choice

Author: Michael Mintrom
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 9781589013889
Size: 60.42 MB
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Rapid and controversial, the spread of school choice initiatives across the United States has radically changed political debate about public education. In this book, Michael Mintrom explores the complex world of open-enrollment policies, charter schools and voucher plans to reveal how and why school choice has become a major issue, and he draws important conclusions about how innovative individuals can spur significant change in the policy arena. Policy entrepreneurs—individuals who take up a cause and make it part of the political agenda—have largely remained background figures without clear definition in the policymaking literature. This book is the first comprehensive and systematic treatment of the concept of policy entrepreneurship, providing an important foundation for explaining how policy proposals are initiated, considered, and adopted. Mintrom uses the emergence of school choice in state politics to examine how policy change originates. He shows how policy entrepreneurs have been instrumental in placing school choice onto state legislative agendas, despite the lack of compelling evidence about its merits, and how they use social networks, reframe policy issues, and attempt to shift the sites of policy debate. Blending innovative theory with both qualitative and quantitative investigation, Mintrom explains how energetic individuals made school choice a real choice. In doing so, he changes our broader understanding of how policy is formed.

Choice Experiments Informing Environmental Policy

Author: Ekin Birol
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1848441258
Size: 59.80 MB
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. . . a text detailing several recent, state-of-the-art choice experiment studies in European Union countries is valuable for illustrating the usefulness of the method for informing environmental policy. . . Birol and Koundouri have admirably compiled an array of case studies that provide relevant information for European environmental, agricultural, natural resource management and food policy, and that also offer a number of advances in the application and analysis of the CEM. The text is suitable for academics and graduate students with an interest in current applications of stated preference methods and for policy-makers interested in understanding people s preferences for environmental quality. . . Bethany Cooper, Australasian Journal of Environmental Management This volume provides an assessment of the literature on environmental valuation in Europe. It outlines some of the key environmental policy issues facing European Union countries and provides information on preferences and values associated with policy options. It also provides a set of state of the art examples of preference elicitation and analysis. This volume will be of interest to a variety of audiences. The book provides insights that will be useful to policy makers interested in understanding the public s preferences for environmental quality and it will be useful to academics and graduate students interested in cutting edge applications of stated preference methods. Wictor Adamowicz, University of Alberta, Canada This innovative book is a compilation of state-of-the-art choice experiment studies undertaken in several European Union (EU) countries, including Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. The case studies presented concern a variety of environmental, agricultural and natural resource issues such as the management of water resources, forests and agricultural landscapes; conservation of biodiversity and cultural heritage; noise pollution reduction and food labeling. The book highlights how the choice experiment method can be employed to inform efficient and effective design and implementation of various EU level agricultural and environmental policies and directives, including the Common Agricultural Policy, Water Framework Directive, Forestry Strategy, Habitats Directive and food labeling systems. This book will be of great interest to researchers working in the fields of environmental, natural resource and agricultural economics. Academics and graduate students worldwide, as well as applied economists working in international and national organizations, would benefit from the cutting edge choice experiment applications presented in this book. International and national policy makers will also benefit from the information on the use and usefulness of the choice experiment method in informing efficient and effective environmental, agricultural and natural resource management policy making.

The Moral Dimensions Of Public Policy Choice

Author: John Martin Gillroy
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 082297150X
Size: 57.43 MB
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Combining philosophy with practical politics, an expanding area of policy studies applies moral precepts, critical principles, and conventional values to collective decisions. This evolving new approach to policy analysis asserts that the same variety of ethical principles available to the individual are also available to make collective decisions in the public interest and should be used. Although policy analysis has long been dominated by assumptions originally developed for the examination of markets, such as efficiency, these essays by leading scholars - the best work done in the field over the past three decades - explore alternatives to the "market paradigm" and show how moral discrimination and choice can extend beyond the individual to encompass public decisions. Chapters by John Martin Gillroy and Maurice Wade review the political philosophies of Immanuel Kant and David Hume as backgrounds for the development of modern concepts of public policy choice. They present this anthology as a first step in codifying options, arguments, and methods within this important developing area of policy studies.