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Polymer Thermodynamics

Author: Kal Renganathan Sharma
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439826404
Size: 45.25 MB
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Polymer Thermodynamics: Blends, Copolymers and Reversible Polymerization describes the thermodynamic basis for miscibility as well as the mathematical models used to predict the compositional window of miscibility and construct temperature versus volume-fraction phase diagrams. The book covers the binary interaction model, the solubility parameter approach, and the entropic difference model. Using equation of state (EOS) theories, thermodynamic models, and information from physical properties, it illustrates the construction of phase envelopes. The book presents nine EOS theories, including some that take into account molecular weight effects. Characteristic values are given in tables. It uses the binary interaction model to predict the compositional window of miscibility for copolymer/homopolymer blends and blends of copolymers and terpolymers with common monomers. It discusses Hansen fractional solubility parameter values, six phase diagram types, the role of polymer architecture in phase behavior, and the mathematical framework for multiple glass transition temperatures found in partially miscible polymer blends. The author also illustrates biomedical and commercial applications of nanocomposites, the properties of various polymer alloys, Fick’s laws of diffusion and their implications during transient events, and the use of the dynamic programming method in the sequence alignment of DNA and proteins. The final chapter reviews the thermodynamics of reversible polymerization and copolymerization. Polymer blends offer improved performance/cost ratios and the flexibility to tailor products to suit customers’ needs. Exploring physical phenomena, such as phase separation, this book provides readers with methods to design polymer blends and predict the phase behavior of binary polymer blends using desktop computers.

Principles Of Polymer Systems Sixth Edition

Author: Ferdinand Rodriguez
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482223783
Size: 53.45 MB
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Maintaining a balance between depth and breadth, the Sixth Edition of Principles of Polymer Systems continues to present an integrated approach to polymer science and engineering. A classic text in the field, the new edition offers a comprehensive exploration of polymers at a level geared toward upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Revisions to the sixth edition include: A more detailed discussion of crystallization kinetics, strain-induced crystallization, block copolymers, liquid crystal polymers, and gels New, powerful radical polymerization methods Additional polymerization process flow sheets and discussion of the polymerization of polystyrene and poly(vinyl chloride) New discussions on the elongational viscosity of polymers and coarse-grained bead-spring molecular and tube models Updated information on models and experimental results of rubber elasticity Expanded sections on fracture of glassy and semicrystalline polymers New sections on fracture of elastomers, diffusion in polymers, and membrane formation New coverage of polymers from renewable resources New section on X-ray methods and dielectric relaxation All chapters have been updated and out-of-date material removed. The text contains more theoretical background for some of the fundamental concepts pertaining to polymer structure and behavior, while also providing an up-to-date discussion of the latest developments in polymerization systems. Example problems in the text help students through step-by-step solutions and nearly 300 end-of-chapter problems, many new to this edition, reinforce the concepts presented.

Nanocoatings Volume Ii

Author: Kal Renganathan Sharma
Publisher: Momentum Press
ISBN: 1606500139
Size: 77.63 MB
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Global market sizes for nanocoatings and coatings are expected to be $14.3 billion and $123 billion, respectively, by the year 2019. Coatings can be classified according to their applications or method of preparation or type of property imparted to the product. They can be either solvent based or water based and may be comprised of polymers or inorganic materials. Nanocoatings with thicknesses less than 100 nm can offer superior performance properties compared with conventional coatings. Nanotuff was one of the first commercial nanocoatings, it contained nanosized particles suspended in an epoxy matrix. Coatings can have specific purposes such as corrosion resistance, antiabrasive resistance, scratch resistance, chemical resistance, and stain resistance to the objects they are applied on. This book contains some new theory in the areas of solubility parameter estimates using isentropic volume expansivity, compressibility, and surface tension effects during coating flows. This volume contains chapters on methods, solvents, drying and inks, and properties. Patents from leading companies such as Xerox, IBM, Intel, BASF, PPG, Boeing, Valspar, Toyota, Goodyear, Gaze Nanotech, Bell Helicopter, Procter & Gamble, and General Electric on nanocoatings are discussed in the book.

Nanostructured Polymer Blends

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1455731609
Size: 35.22 MB
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Over 30% of commercial polymers are blends or alloys or one kind or another. Nanostructured blends offer the scientist or plastics engineer a new range of possibilities with characteristics including thermodynamic stablility; the potential to improve material transparency, creep and solvent resistance; the potential to simultaneously increase tensile strength and ductility; superior rheological properties; and relatively low cost. Nanostructured Polymer Blends opens up immense structural possibilities via chemical and mechanical modifications that generate novel properties and functions and high-performance characteristics at a low cost. The emerging applications of these new materials cover a wide range of industry sectors, encompassing the coatings and adhesives industry, electronics, energy (photovoltaics), aerospace and medical devices (where polymer blends provide innovations in biocompatible materials). This book explains the science of nanostructure formation and the nature of interphase formations, demystifies the design of nanostructured blends to achieve specific properties, and introduces the applications for this important new class of nanomaterial. All the key topics related to recent advances in blends are covered: IPNs, phase morphologies, composites and nanocomposites, nanostructure formation, the chemistry and structure of additives, etc. Introduces the science and technology of nanostructured polymer blends – and the procedures involved in melt blending and chemical blending to produce new materials with specific performance characteristics Unlocks the potential of nanostructured polymer blends for applications across sectors, including electronics, energy/photovoltaics, aerospace/automotive, and medical devices (biocompatible polymers) Explains the performance benefits in areas including rheological properties, thermodynamic stablility, material transparency, solvent resistance, etc.

Thermodynamics Of Polymer Blends

Author: Anatoly E. Nesterov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781566766241
Size: 54.94 MB
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Thermodynamics is an indispensable tool for developing a large and growing fraction of new polymers and polymer blends. These two volumes show the researcher how thermodynamics can be used to rank polymer pairs in order of immiscibility, including the search for suitable chemical structure of compatibilizers. Because of the great current commercial interest in this most dynamic sector of the polymer industry, there is high interest in studying their physical and mechanical properties, their structures, and the processes of their formation and manufacture. These Books are dedicated to Analysis of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends. Thermodynamic behavior of blends determines the compatibility of the components, their morphological features, rheological behavior, and microphase structures. As a result, the most important physical and mechanical characteristics of blends can be identified. The information in these two volumes will be useful to all those involved in polymer research, development, analysis and advanced process engineering.

Characterization Of Polymer Blends

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645616
Size: 19.72 MB
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Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Transreactions In Condensation Polymers

Author: Stoyko Fakirov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527613854
Size: 40.33 MB
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The ability of condensation polymers to undergo additional chemical reactions, so-called transreactions, is really fascinating. These processes lead to novel copolymers with desired composition and sequential order, allow to enhance the compatibility and to minimize molecular weight fluctuations during polycondensation and processing and to provide for chemical healing of laminates of condensation polymers. An international team of highly reputated polymer chemists and physicists discusses here, first of all, various types of transreactions, but additional condensations are also detailed in many cases. - A comprehensive book of high interest to any polymer scientist in academia and industry!

Polymer Processing And Characterization

Author: Sabu Thomas
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1926895150
Size: 43.57 MB
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This book deals with the polymers, different methods of synthesis, and synthesis of composites, as well as the different techniques used for polymer characterization. Most of the world’s industries extract the anomalous properties of polymers to make excellent cost-effective materials. Because of this, the types of polymers, their processing, and the analysis of their various properties are very significant. Readers will gain a thorough knowledge about the processing of different types of polymers and composites made from them, as well as their various applications. Suitable for classroom use but especially important for researchers, this book addresses: Adhesion of amorphous polymers with vitrified bulk and surface glass transition Functionalized biopolymers and their applications A new synthesis of p-Cresol-Adipamide-Formaldehyde copolymer resin and its applications as an ion-changer Correlating performance of commercial viscosity modifiers for formulating shear stable industrial lubricants Synthesis of phthalonitrile polymers in ionic liquid and microwave media Studies on nanocomposite polymer electrolytes doped with Ca3(PO4)2 for lithium batteries