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Population Ecology Of Individuals

Author: Adam Łomnicki
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691084626
Size: 57.24 MB
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A common tendency in the field of population ecology has been to overlook individual differences by treating populations as homogeneous units; conversely, in behavioral ecology the tendency has been to concentrate on how individual behavior is shaped by evolutionary forces, but not on how this behavior affects population dynamics. Adam Lomnicki and others aim to remedy this one-sidedness by showing that the overall dynamical behavior of populations must ultimately be understood in terms of the behavior of individuals. Professor Lomnicki's wide-ranging presentation of this approach includes simple mathematical models aimed at describing both the origin and consequences of individual variation among plants and animals. The author contends that further progress in population ecology will require taking into account individual differences other than sex, age, and taxonomic affiliation--unequal access to resources, for instance. Population ecologists who adopt this viewpoint may discover new answers to classical questions of population ecology. Partly because it uses a variety of examples from many taxonomic groups, this work will appeal not only to population ecologists but to ecologists in general.

From Individual Behaviour To Population Ecology

Author: William J. Sutherland
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198549109
Size: 72.39 MB
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Population dynamics and animal behaviour are two subjects which have developed almost independently, despite widespread acceptance of the idea that they must be related. This book provides a novel framework for combining these two subjects and then shows how to consider a range of conservation issues. It is aimed at students and researchers in animal behaviour, population ecology, and conservation biology.

Introduction To Population Ecology

Author: Larry L. Rockwood
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118947568
Size: 26.69 MB
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Introduction to Population Ecology, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive textbook covering all aspects of population ecology. It uses a wide variety of field and laboratory examples, botanical to zoological, from the tropics to the tundra, to illustrate the fundamental laws of population ecology. Controversies in population ecology are brought fully up to date in this edition, with many brand new and revised examples and data. Each chapter provides an overview of how population theory has developed, followed by descriptions of laboratory and field studies that have been inspired by the theory. Topics explored include single-species population growth and self-limitation, life histories, metapopulations and a wide range of interspecific interactions including competition, mutualism, parasite-host, predator-prey and plant-herbivore. An additional final chapter, new for the second edition, considers multi-trophic and other complex interactions among species. Throughout the book, the mathematics involved is explained with a step-by-step approach, and graphs and other visual aids are used to present a clear illustration of how the models work. Such features make this an accessible introduction to population ecology; essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in population ecology, applied ecology, conservation ecology, and conservation biology, including those with little mathematical experience.

Animal Population Ecology

Author: J Dempster
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323160840
Size: 66.34 MB
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Animal Population Ecology focuses on the interaction between the various factors that affect an animal population. Population ecology is the study of the factors that determine the abundance of species and is concerned with the identification and mode of action of those environmental factors that cause fluctuations in population size and of those which determine the extent of these fluctuations. Organized into 11 chapters, the book initially examines some of the basic ideas about animal populations and defines many of the terms used by population ecologists. Then, it describes the action of the most important factors affecting population size. The interaction between these factors is demonstrated in chapters 8 and 9, wherein the results from studies of a few selected species are presented in detail. Finally, chapters 10 and 11 cover the development of generalized theories of population dynamics and their application to practical problems. With a strong focus on intensive study of animal populations in the field, rather than elaborate theories, the book will be helpful to population ecologists, animal researchers, teachers, and students.

Population Ecology

Author: John H. Vandermeer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691114415
Size: 27.38 MB
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How can the future number of deer, agricultural pests, or cod be calculated based on the present number of individuals and their age distribution? How long will it take for a viral outbreak in a particular city to reach another city five hundred miles away? In addressing such basic questions, ecologists today are as likely to turn to complicated differential equations as to life histories--a dramatic change from thirty years ago. Population ecology is the mathematical backbone of ecology. Here, two leading experts provide the underlying quantitative concepts that all modern-day ecologists need. John Vandermeer and Deborah Goldberg show that populations are more than simply collections of individuals. Complex variables such as the size distribution of individuals and allotted territory for expanding groups come into play when mathematical models are applied. The authors build these models from the ground up, from first principles, using a much broader range of empirical examples--from plants to animals, from viruses to humans--than do standard texts. And they address several complicating issues such as age-structured populations, spatially distributed populations, and metapopulations. Beginning with a review of elementary principles, the book goes on to consider theoretical issues involving life histories, complications in the application of the core principles, statistical descriptions of spatial aggregation of individuals and populations as well as population dynamic models incorporating spatial information, and introductions to two-species interactions. Complemented by superb illustrations that further clarify the links between the mathematical models and biology, Population Ecology is the most straightforward and authoritative overview of the field to date. It will have broad appeal among undergraduates, graduate students, and practicing ecologists.

Bayesian Analysis For Population Ecology

Author: Ruth King
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439811887
Size: 80.97 MB
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Novel Statistical Tools for Conserving and Managing Populations By gathering information on key demographic parameters, scientists can often predict how populations will develop in the future and relate these parameters to external influences, such as global warming. Because of their ability to easily incorporate random effects, fit state-space models, evaluate posterior model probabilities, and deal with missing data, modern Bayesian methods have become important in this area of statistical inference and forecasting. Emphasising model choice and model averaging, Bayesian Analysis for Population Ecology presents up-to-date methods for analysing complex ecological data. Leaders in the statistical ecology field, the authors apply the theory to a wide range of actual case studies and illustrate the methods using WinBUGS and R. The computer programs and full details of the data sets are available on the book’s website. The first part of the book focuses on models and their corresponding likelihood functions. The authors examine classical methods of inference for estimating model parameters, including maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters using numerical optimisation algorithms. After building this foundation, the authors develop the Bayesian approach for fitting models to data. They also compare Bayesian and traditional approaches to model fitting and inference. Exploring challenging problems in population ecology, this book shows how to use the latest Bayesian methods to analyse data. It enables readers to apply the methods to their own problems with confidence.

Individual Based Models And Approaches In Ecology

Author: D. L. DeAngelis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351090364
Size: 34.42 MB
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Until fairly recently, populations were handled as homogenized averages, which made modeling feasible but which ignored the essential fact that in any population there is a great variety of individuals of different ages, sizes, and degrees of fitness. Recently, because of the increased availability of affordable computer power, approaches have been developed which are able to recognize individual differences. Individual-based models are of great use in the areas of aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, landscape or physiological ecology, terrestrial ecology, landscape or physiological ecology, and agriculture. This book discusses which biological problems individual-based models can solve, as well as the models' inherent limitations. It explores likely future directions of theoretical development in these models, as well as currently feasible management applications and the best mathematical approaches and computer languages to use. The book also details specific applications to theory and management.

The Population Ecology Of Interest Representation

Author: Virginia Gray
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 9780472087181
Size: 78.32 MB
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This examination of lobbying communities explores how interest group populations are constructed and how they influence politics and public policy. By examining how populations of interest groups are comprised, this work fills an important gap between existing theories of the origins of individual interest groups and studies of interest group influence. The population ecology model of interest communities developed here builds on insights first developed in population biology and later employed by organizational ecologists. The model's central premise is that it is the environmental forces confronting interest organizations that most directly shape the contours of interest populations. After examining the demography of interest organizations in the fifty American states, the population ecology model is used to account for variations in the density and diversity of their interest communities, the nature of competition among similar interest organizations to establish viable niches, and the impact of alternative configurations of interest communities on the legislative process and the policies it produces. These empirical findings suggest that the environment of interest communities is highly constraining, limiting their size, composition, and potential impact on politics. Virginia Gray is Professor of Political Science, University of Minnesota. David Lowery is Burton Craige Professor of Political Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Individual Based Modeling And Ecology

Author: Volker Grimm
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400850622
Size: 36.49 MB
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Individual-based models are an exciting and widely used new tool for ecology. These computational models allow scientists to explore the mechanisms through which population and ecosystem ecology arises from how individuals interact with each other and their environment. This book provides the first in-depth treatment of individual-based modeling and its use to develop theoretical understanding of how ecological systems work, an approach the authors call "individual-based ecology." Grimm and Railsback start with a general primer on modeling: how to design models that are as simple as possible while still allowing specific problems to be solved, and how to move efficiently through a cycle of pattern-oriented model design, implementation, and analysis. Next, they address the problems of theory and conceptual framework for individual-based ecology: What is "theory"? That is, how do we develop reusable models of how system dynamics arise from characteristics of individuals? What conceptual framework do we use when the classical differential equation framework no longer applies? An extensive review illustrates the ecological problems that have been addressed with individual-based models. The authors then identify how the mechanics of building and using individual-based models differ from those of traditional science, and provide guidance on formulating, programming, and analyzing models. This book will be helpful to ecologists interested in modeling, and to other scientists interested in agent-based modeling.

Ecological Orbits

Author: Lev Ginzburg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198037545
Size: 66.55 MB
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A famous ecologist and a philosopher of science team up to offer a fresh new approach to population biology and ecology. Challenging the traditionally accepted Lotka-Volterra model, which is based on predator-prey interactions, this new model emphasizes maternal effects, specifically the significance of a mother's interest in the success of her female offspring.