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Prenatal Testosterone In Mind

Author: Simon Baron-Cohen
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262250559
Size: 25.42 MB
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This pioneering study looks at the effects of prenatal testosterone on postnatal development and behavior. Hormonal effects on behavior have long been studied in animals; the unique contribution of this book is to suggest a connection between human fetal hormones and later behavior. It details for the first time testosterone's effect on social and language development, opening a new avenue of research for cognitive neuroscience. The authors look at samples of amniotic fluid taken during amniocentesis at 16 weeks' gestation, and relate the fetal level of testosterone (which is present in fetuses of both sexes, although in different quantities) to behavior at ages 1, 2, and 4 years. They argue that the amniotic fluid provides a window into the child's past—a chemical record of that child's time in the womb—that allows informed prediction about the child's future brain, mind, and behavior. This is not the retrospective speculation of psychoanalysis, they point out, but an opportunity to study development prospectively and trace developmental precursors and causes of later cognition. The study suggests that prenatal levels of testosterone affect a range of later behaviors in children, from the inclination to make eye contact with others to the size of the vocabulary. It also suggests that prenatal testosterone level may be related to the development of typically "masculine" and "feminine" behaviors. The study's ongoing research explores whether fetal testosterone has any link with the risk of developing autism. Connecting endocrinology and psychology, the authors propose that there is a biological component to behaviors often thought to be produced by the social environment.

Hardwired Behavior

Author: Laurence Tancredi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521860017
Size: 22.76 MB
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Argues that the concepts of social morality and individual responsibility begin in the brain.

Origins

Author: Annie Murphy Paul
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 143917184X
Size: 13.15 MB
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What makes us the way we are? Some say it’s the genes we inherit at conception. Others are sure it’s the environment we experience in childhood. But could it be that many of our individual characteristics—our health, our intelligence, our temperaments—are influenced by the conditions we encountered before birth? That’s the claim of an exciting and provocative field known as fetal origins. Over the past twenty years, scientists have been developing a radically new understanding of our very earliest experiences and how they exert lasting effects on us from infancy well into adulthood. Their research offers a bold new view of pregnancy as a crucial staging ground for our health, ability, and well-being throughout life. Author and journalist Annie Murphy Paul ventures into the laboratories of fetal researchers, interviews experts from around the world, and delves into the rich history of ideas about how we’re shaped before birth. She discovers dramatic stories: how individuals gestated during the Nazi siege of Holland in World War II are still feeling its consequences decades later; how pregnant women who experienced the 9/11 attacks passed their trauma on to their offspring in the womb; how a lab accident led to the discovery of a common household chemical that can harm the developing fetus; how the study of a century-old flu pandemic reveals the high personal and societal costs of poor prenatal experience. Origins also brings to light astonishing scientific findings: how a single exposure to an environmental toxin may produce damage that is passed on to multiple generations; how conditions as varied as diabetes, heart disease, and mental illness may get their start in utero; why the womb is medicine’s latest target for the promotion of lifelong health, from preventing cancer to reducing obesity. The fetus is not an inert being, but an active and dynamic creature, responding and adapting as it readies itself for life in the particular world it will enter. The pregnant woman is not merely a source of potential harm to her fetus, as she is so often reminded, but a source of influence on her future child that is far more powerful and positive than we ever knew. And pregnancy is not a nine-month wait for the big event of birth, but a momentous period unto itself, a cradle of individual strength and wellness and a crucible of public health and social equality. With the intimacy of a personal memoir and the sweep of a scientific revolution, Origins presents a stunning new vision of our beginnings that will change the way you think about yourself, your children, and human nature itself.

It S A Baby Girl

Author: The Gurian Institute
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470441114
Size: 66.48 MB
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Very practical science based tips and guidelines and stories for moms and dads of baby girls. Including: Why you need a book just about girls. The very different health issues, genetic predisposition, hard wiring, neurological and biological development of girls, including unique strengths and weaknesses. How to understand the core nature of your girl and nourish it through problems of crying, fussing, eating, sleeping, attaching and other key issues during the first 12 months of life. Warm hearted stories about girls and tips from real moms, and a preview of what's to come for girls as they become toddlers, preschool kids, pubescent and beyond.

The Essential Difference

Author: Simon Baron-Cohen
Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com
ISBN: 145875927X
Size: 30.74 MB
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We all know the opposite sex can be a baffling, even infuriating, species. Why do most men use the phone to exchange information rather than have a chat? Why do women love talking about relationships and feelings with their girlfriends while men seem drawn to computer games, new gadgets, or the latest sports scores? Does it really all just come down to our upbringing? In The Essential Difference, leading psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen confirms what most of us had suspected all along: that male and female brains are different. This groundbreaking and controversial study reveals the scientific evidence (present even in one-day-old babies) that proves that female-type brains are better at empathizing and communicating, while male brains are stronger at understanding and building systems-not just computers and machinery, but abstract systems such as politics and music. Most revolutionary of all, The Essential Difference also puts forward the compelling new theory that autism (and its close relative, Asperger's Syndrome) is actually an example of the extreme male brain. His theory can explain why those who live with this condition are brilliant at analyzing the most complex systems yet cannot relate to the emotional lives of those with whom they live. Understanding our essential difference, Baron-Cohen concludes, may help us not only make sense of our partners' foibles, but also solve one of the most mysterious scientific riddles of our time.

Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience

Author: Steven M. Platek
Publisher: Mit Press
ISBN: 9780262162418
Size: 15.18 MB
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An essential reference for the new discipline of evolutionary cognitive neurosciencethat defines the field's approach of applying evolutionary theory to guide brain-behaviorinvestigations.

Knowing Otherwise

Author: Alexis Shotwell
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271037644
Size: 23.41 MB
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"Draws on philosophers, political theorists, activists, and poets to explain how unspoken and unspeakable knowledge is important to racial and gender formation; offers a usable conception of implicit understanding"--Provided by publishers.

Perinatal Programming Of Neurodevelopment

Author: Marta Antonelli
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493913727
Size: 37.13 MB
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The development of the brain and nervous system is shaped not just by a genetic program, but also by the effects of multiple environmental stimuli. There are currently no book-length treatments of perinatal neurodevelopment. The proposed book seeks to fill this gap by presenting a collection of chapters from leading experts in the field. It is intended to be comprehensive and will cover all aspects of neurodevelopmental programming in lab animals and in human subjects. The third section of the book will look at ways of translating insights we have garnered from animal studies to human and clinical studies. The primary audience for this work is basic researchers interested in the effects of perinatal imprinting on the development of the nervous system and associated diseases.