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Principles Of Animal Locomotion

Author: R. McNeill Alexander
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849519
Size: 77.68 MB
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How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.

Animal Locomotion

Author: Andrew A. Biewener
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198500223
Size: 71.30 MB
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This work provides a clear foundation for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion.

Animal Locomotion

Author: Malcolm S. Gordon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351966200
Size: 71.47 MB
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Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.

Animal Locomotion

Author: Andrew Biewener
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191060852
Size: 80.64 MB
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Animals have evolved remarkable biomechanical and physiological systems that enable their rich repertoire of motion. Animal Locomotion offers a fundamental understanding of animal movement through a broad comparative and integrative approach, including basic mathematics and physics, examination of new and enduring literature, consideration of classic and cutting-edge methods, and a strong emphasis on the core concepts that consistently ground the dizzying array of animal movements. Across scales and environments, this book integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion. This second edition has been thoroughly revised, incorporating new content on non-vertebrate animal locomotor systems, studies of animal locomotion that have inspired robotic designs, and a new chapter on the use of evolutionary approaches to locomotor mechanisms and performance.

Animal Locomotion

Author: Graham Taylor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642116339
Size: 10.40 MB
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The physical principles of swimming and flying in animals are intriguingly different from those of ships and airplanes. The study of animal locomotion therefore holds a special place not only at the frontiers of pure fluid dynamics research, but also in the applied field of biomimetics, which aims to emulate salient aspects of the performance and function of living organisms. For example, fluid dynamic loads are so significant for swimming fish that they are expected to have developed efficient flow control procedures through the evolutionary process of adaptation by natural selection, which might in turn be applied to the design of robotic swimmers. And yet, sharply contrasting views as to the energetic efficiency of oscillatory propulsion – especially for marine animals – demand a careful assessment of the forces and energy expended at realistic Reynolds numbers. For this and many other research questions, an experimental approach is often the most appropriate methodology. This holds as much for flying animals as it does for swimming ones, and similar experimental challenges apply – studying tethered as opposed to free locomotion, or studying the flow around robotic models as opposed to real animals. This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them.

Handbuch Der Normalen Und Pathologischen Physiologie

Author: A. Bethe
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642910289
Size: 76.23 MB
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Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Principles Of Animal Design

Author: Ewald R. Weibel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521586672
Size: 21.90 MB
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The book discusses whether animals are designed according to the same rules that engineers use in building machines.

Biosystematik

Author: Guillaume Lecointre
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3540299793
Size: 38.36 MB
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Wussten Sie, dass Sie mit einem Röhrling näher verwandt sind als mit einem Gänseblümchen oder Vögel den Krokodilen näher sind als Eidechsen? In den letzten 30 Jahren sind die Methoden der Klassifikation des Lebens völlig neu überdacht worden. Das Resultat stellt die bisherige Einteilung der mehr als 2 Millionen bekannten Arten auf den Kopf. Das Buch hilft, die organismische Vielfalt zu bewältigen, indem wesentliche Einteilungs- und Ordnungskriterien vorgestellt und bedeutende stammesgeschichtliche Entwicklungslinien diskutiert werden.