: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
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Preface Many of us believe that the ninth edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook represents a watershed in lighting practice. Over the past twenty years there has been a movement in lighting practice from illuminating engineering to lighting design, a movement from calculations of illuminance to judgments of aesthetics, a movement from quantity to quality. For the first time, the IESNA has, through this edition, formalized recommendations of lighting quality, reflecting this movement in lighting practice. These formal recommendations are provided in a matrix entitled the IESNA Lighting Design Guide. The Guide includes recommendations on important lighting design criteria such as eye-source-task geometry, flicker, color, and glare. They are provided alongside the traditional recommendations of illuminance for a wide variety of applications. The intent of the Guide is to broaden the perspective of lighting practitioners and to direct them to specify higher quality lighting. The idea for the IESNA Lighting Design Guide was born beside Lake George in upstate New York at the retreat for editing the eighth edition of this Handbook. During a break in editing, some of the editing team took a walk along the edge of the lake. Feeling a bit tired, we lamented that most people would probably never read what we were editing because they would only consult the illuminance selection table. We repeated the standard joke: If the Handbook in most architectural-engineering offices is placed on its spine, it will fall open to the illuminance selection table because that is the only section ever consulted. We mused that it be nice if users had to consider the many other important lighting design criteria found throughout the text. Building on that idea, we sketched out the basic framework of the matrix. Through hard work and review by several committees, the IESNA Lighting Design Guide in Chapter 10 of this edition of the Handbook was produced. Of course we all still hope that users will read the entire text of the ninth edition of the Handbook, but if it must fall open to any one section, it will now fall open to a section that describes more than one lighting design criterion. Actually the genesis of the IESNA Lighting Design Guide goes back several years before our walk along Lake George. One of the first lighting people I met as a graduate student at Ohio State University was Steve Squillace, engineer, teacher, past president of the IESNA, and recipient of its highest technical award. Steve's passion for lighting and life set him apart from his contemporaries. In every conversation I had with Steve he insisted that every lighting designer and illuminating engineer should think about lighting. As a passionate radical, he argued that the IESNA should do away with illuminance recommendations altogether because they were substitutes for thinking. Many disagreed with Steve, believing that the majority of practitioners in the building industry were not lighting specialists. These people needed to quickly find practical guidance and then move on to other decisions. The problem had been that illuminance became the only criterion these practitioners considered before moving on. In this edition, the single focus on illuminance is no longer possible. Steve might argue that we are moving in the wrong direction, however. There are more formal recommendations in this edition of the Handbook than ever before. Perhaps people who are now doing good lighting will stop thinking, but we doubt that. Rather, we believe that thinking is required to follow these recommendations. The lighting practitioner who needs to hurry to the next decision can no longer rely upon an illuminance calculation and consider the lighting job completed. Often illuminance is not the primary lighting design criterion in the Guide. With the recommendations put forward in this edition, the practitioner must take some time to study the application and decide among several important lighting design criteria. The thinking time invested by the lighting practitioner is worthwhile because that investment will improve the quality of lighting throughout North America. Many people deserve a great deal of credit in developing, writing, and producing this edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook. I have tried to acknowledge everyone who contributed, but no acknowledgment can do justice to the long-standing commitment these people have made to lighting. Their contributions to this edition are only a small part of their life-long commitment to improving the quality of life through better lighting. It is my sincerest wish that the ninth edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook does honor to these contributors and helps them continue to improve the quality of lighting throughout North America. Mark S. Rea, Ph.D., FIES Editor-in-chief Foreword The Illuminating Engineering Society was founded in 1906, but it was not until 1947 that the first edition of the Handbook appeared, thus representing the accumulation of 41 years of lighting progress since the Society's founding. In each subsequent edition, IESNA has provided information on an ever-broadening range of technologies, procedures, and design issues. In the ninth edition, the editorial team has continued the trend of securing knowledge on all phases of lighting from IESNA committees and individual experts to ensure that this Handbook is the lighting reference source for the beginning of the next century. The emphasis in the ninth edition is on quality. Previous editions have discussed important criteria for assessing and designing the visual environment, but a formal system for considering these issues had not been developed. IESNA has, however, always recommended quantity of light for specific applications or visual tasks. As a result, many practitioners often mistook the IESNA system of recommended illuminances (quantity) as the primary, or even the sole criterion, for lighting design. This Handbook introduces a new, formal system of addressing quality issues in the Lighting Design Guide in Chapter 10, Quality of the Visual Environment. There are changes, too, in the illluminance categories, reduced from nine to seven and organized into three sets of visual tasks (simple, common, and special). Every application in the Lighting Design Guide has a specific (single number) recommended illuminance representing best practice for a typical application. Through the Lighting Design Guide and other information in Chapter 10, IESNA is recognizing and emphasizing that illuminance is not the sole lighting design criterion. Other criteria may be more important, and, given the complexity and diversity of design goals for a specific application, the designer now has the opportunity to evaluate among the quantity and quality choices. This approach has been described as "a bridge to the 21st century," when it is expected that the tenth edition of the Handbook will provide a more precise method of measuring quality factors and their impact on the visual environment. Other chapters in the book are new, or have been rewritten or updated. There are new application chapters on outdoor lighting, security lighting, parking facilities, retail, shopping mall and industrial lighting, and significant revisions to chapters on measurement of light, vision and perception, photobiology, aviation, and transportation. This Handbook could not have been produced without the IESNA committees and individual specialists, those willing volunteers who give countless hours to the process of sharing their expertise. The Society thanks each and every contributor. The professional editorial team brought talent and discipline to the project. Dr. Mark Rea, Judith Block, John Bullough, and Mariana Figueiro of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute together with four Topic Editors, Michael Ouellette, David DiLaura, Roger Knott, and Nancy Clanton, have earned our appreciation for their contributions in evaluating, editing and, when necessary, developing material. The IESNA Lighting Handbook represents the most important reference document in the lighting profession. It is one means by which the Society accomplishes its mission: to advance knowledge and disseminate information for the improvement of the lighted environment to the benefit of society. We hope that, you, the reader, will find the ninth edition your principal reference source for lighting information. William H. Hanley Executive Vice President Rita M. Harrold Director, Educational and Technical Development Acknowledgments We acknowledge the four Topic Editors: Nancy E. Clanton, Clanton Engineering Associates, Boulder, Colorado David DiLaura, University of Colorado at Boulder Roger Knott, Lighting Consultant, Cleveland, Ohio Michael Ouellette, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa We acknowledge the following committees and committee chairs for their efforts on behalf of this revision of the Handbook during the period 19961999: Agricultural Lighting: Ronald MacDonald, Chair Aviation: William Pickell, Chair (199697), Daniel Geary, Chair (199799) Calculation Procedures: Richard G. Mistrick, Chair (199697), Ian Ashdown, Chair (199799) Casino and Gaming Lighting: Elwyn Gee, Chair Color: Ron Daubach, Chair Computer: Paul K. Ericson, Chair Correctional Facilities: Stewart E. Greene, Chair Daylighting: Morad R. Atif, Ph.D.,Chair Emergency Lighting: Mary Kim Reitterer, Chair Energy Management: Dave Ranieri, Chair (199698), Carol Jones, Chair (199899) Financial Facilities: Hyman M. Kaplan, Chair (199698) Health Care Facilities: David H. Epley, Chair Hospitality Facilities: Candace M. Kling, Chair (199697), Martyn Timmings, Chair (199799) Houses of Worship: Viggo B. Rambusch, Chair Industrial: William T. Busch, Chair Landscape Lighting, Lloyd Reeder, Chair Light Control and Luminaire Design: Gerald Plank Jr., Chair Light Sources: Pekka Hakkarainen, Chair Lighting Economics: John Selander, Chair (199697), Cheryl English, Chair (199799) Lighting for the Aged and Partially Sighted: Eunice D. Noell, Chair Maintenance: Norma Frank, Chair Mall Lighting: Robert Horner, Chair Marine Lighting: Michael J. Leite, Chair Museum and Art Gallery: Frank A. Florentine, Chair Nomenclature: Warren "Gus" Baker, Chair Office Lighting: Mitchell B. Kohn, Chair Outdoor Environmental: Nancy E. Clanton, Chair Photobiology: George C. Brainard, Ph.D., Chair Quality of the Visual Environment: Naomi Johnson Miller, Chair Residence Lighting: Kathy A. Presciano, Chair Retail Areas: Bernie Bauer, Chair Roadway: Balu Ananthanarayanan, Chair (199698), John Mickel, Chair (199899) School and College: Shail Mahanti, Chair Security Lighting: Douglas Paulin, Chair (199698), David Salmon, Chair (199899) Sports and Recreational Areas: John Kirchner, Chair (199698), Michael Owens (199899) Technical Review Council: Donald Smith, Chair (199697), Richard Collins, Chair (199799) Testing Procedures: Richard Collins, Chair (199697), James Walker, Chair (199799) Theatre, Television, and Film: James P. McHugh, Chair Contributing individuals, in alphabetical order: Eric Block, Peter Boyce, Jack Burkarth, Christopher Cuttle, David Evans, Joseph M. Good, III, Dawn DeGrazio, Jim Fowler, Rita M. Harrold, Hugh Henry, Jules Horton, Jules S. Jaffe, Yunfen Ji, Walter J. Kosmatka, Robert Landry, Robert Levin, Kevin McCarthy, Greg McKee, Nishantha Maliyagoda, Scott Mangum, Naomi Johnson Miller, Sharon Miller, Janet Lennox Moyer, Joseph Murdoch, N. Narendran, Peter Ngai, Yoshihiro Ohno, Mark Olsson, Robert Roller, Greg Shick, Ted Smith, Stephen Squillace, Gary Steffy, Jennifer Veitch.