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The Things We Do

Author: Gary Cziko
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262032773
Size: 77.92 MB
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The remarkable achievements that modern science has made in physics, chemistry,biology, medicine, and engineering contrast sharply with our limited knowledge of the human mind andbehavior. A major reason for this slow progress, claims Gary Cziko, is that with few exceptions,behavioral and cognitive scientists continue to apply a Newtonian-inspired view of animate behavioras an organism's output determined by environmental input. This one-way cause-effect approachignores the important findings of two major nineteenth-century biologists, French physiologistClaude Bernard and English naturalist Charles Darwin. Approaching living organismsas purposeful systems that behave in order to control their perceptions of the external environmentprovides a new perspective for understanding what, why, and how living things, including humans, dowhat they do. Cziko examines in particular perceptual control theory, which has its roots inBernard's work on the self-regulating nature of living organisms and in the work of engineers whodeveloped the field of cybernetics during and after World War II. He also shows how our evolutionarypast together with Darwinian processes currently occurring within our bodies, such as the evolutionof new brain connections, provide insights into the immediate and ultimate causes ofbehavior. Writing in an accessible style, Cziko shows how the lessons of Bernardand Darwin, updated with the best of current scientific knowledge, can provide solutions to certainlong-standing theoretical and practical problems in behavioral science and enable us to develop newmethods and topics for research.

Conjectures And Refutations

Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135971374
Size: 63.80 MB
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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Critical Readings On Piaget

Author: Leslie Smith
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134786131
Size: 71.25 MB
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First published in 1996. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Understanding Understanding

Author: Heinz von Foerster
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387217223
Size: 11.86 MB
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In these ground-breaking essays, Heinz von Foerster discusses some of the fundamental principles that govern how we know the world and how we process the information from which we derive that knowledge. The author was one of the founders of the science of cybernetics.

Aesthetics Method And Epistemology

Author: Michel Foucault
Publisher: Penguin Books, Limited (UK)
ISBN: 9780140259568
Size: 20.21 MB
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Volume 2 in the ESSENTIAL WORKS OF FOUCAULT series and originally published by Allen Lane in 1999, a collection of articles, interviews and lectures on the subject of aesthetics, written by the twentieth century French philosopher, Michel Foucault and translated into English.

The Interpretation Of Cultures

Author: Clifford Geertz
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465093566
Size: 27.79 MB
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In The Interpretation of Cultures, the most original anthropologist of his generation moved far beyond the traditional confines of his discipline to develop an important new concept of culture. This groundbreaking book, winner of the 1974 Sorokin Award of the American Sociological Association, helped define for an entire generation of anthropologists what their field is ultimately about.

Power Knowledge

Author: Michel Foucault
Publisher: Pantheon
ISBN: 039473954X
Size: 34.18 MB
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Study of the intersection of history and philosophy as it relates to recent French political change, evidenced in essays concerning popular justice, power struggles, and the history of sexuality

Morphisms And Categories

Author: Jean Piaget
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134743335
Size: 78.36 MB
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Despite dissent in many quarters, Piaget's epistemology and the developmental psychology derived from it remain the most powerful theories in either field. From the beginning, Piaget's fundamental epistemological notion was that all knowledge is rooted in action, and for a long time, he identified action with transformation. What is known is that which remains constant under transformatory action. This book represents a fundamental reformulation of that point of view. Alongside transformatory schemes, Piaget now presents evidence that nontransformatory actions -- comparisons that create morphisms and categories among diverse situations constitute a necessary and complementary instrument of knowledge. This work aims to elucidate that insight experimentally and theoretically and to understand the developmental interaction of comparing and transforming as knowledge is constructed. This first English translation of Piaget's work includes studies of children's understanding of geometric forms, machines, and abstract concepts. It contains a clear statement of his mature position on continuity with biology as well as with the history of ideas.