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The Things We Do

Author: Gary Cziko
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262032773
Size: 47.55 MB
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He also shows how our evolutionary past together with Darwinian processes currently occurring within our bodies, such as the evolution of new brain connections, provides insights into the immediate and ultimate causes of behavior.".

Reconstructing The Past

Author: Elliott Sober
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262691444
Size: 61.61 MB
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Reconstructing the Past seeks to clarify and help resolve the vexing methodological issues that arise when biologists try to answer such questions as whether human beings are more closely related to chimps than they are to gorillas. It explores the case for considering the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony as a useful principle for evaluating taxonomic theories of evolutionary relationships.For the past two decades, evolutionists have been vigorously debating the appropriate methods that should be used in systematics, the field that aims at reconstructing phylogenetic relationships among species. This debate over phylogenetic inference, Elliott Sober observes, raises broader questions of hypothesis testing and theory evaluation that run head on into long standing issues concerning simplicity/parsimony in the philosophy of science.Sober treats the problem of phylogenetic inference as a detailed case study in which the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony can be tested as a principle of theory evaluation. Bringing together philosophy and biology, as well as statistics, Sober builds a general framework for understanding the circumstances in which parsimony makes sense as a tool of phylogenetic inference. Along the way he provides a detailed critique of parsimony in the biological literature, exploring the strengths and limitations of both statistical and nonstatistical cladistic arguments.

Das Weltbild Des Kindes

Author: Jean Piaget
Publisher: Klett-Cotta
ISBN: 3608202293
Size: 31.55 MB
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Dieser Klassiker der Entwicklungspsychologie liefert eine gut verständliche und immer noch spannend zu lesende Übersicht über die typischen Wahrnehmungs- und Interpretationsmuster von Vorschulkindern. Wie interpretieren Kinder den Zusammenhang von Wörtern und Dingen, den Ursprung und die Eigenschaften natürlicher Phänomene und die Ursache von Ereignissen? Jean Piaget analysiert in diesem Buch die typischen Eigenheiten des kindlichen Weltverstehens und widmet sich damit grundlegenden Fragen der Entwicklungspsychologie. Auf der Basis eigener Befragungen zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten der Kinderlogik greift er die Resultate der damaligen Forschung auf und setzt diese zu einem umfassenden Erklärungsmodell zusammen.