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Principles Of Soil And Plant Water Relations

Author: M.B. Kirkham
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124200788
Size: 29.63 MB
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Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations, 2e describes the principles of water relations within soils, followed by the uptake of water and its subsequent movement throughout and from the plant body. This is presented as a progressive series of physical and biological interrelations, even though each topic is treated in detail on its own. The book also describes equipment used to measure water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. At the end of each chapter is a biography of a scientist whose principles are discussed in the chapter. In addition to new information on the concept of celestial time, this new edition also includes new chapters on methods to determine sap flow in plants dual-probe heat-pulse technique to monitor water in the root zone. Provides the necessary understanding to address advancing problems in water availability for meeting ecological requirements at local, regional and global scales Covers plant anatomy: an essential component to understanding soil and plant water relations

Principles Of Soil And Plant Water Relations

Author: M.B. Kirkham
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080492162
Size: 64.65 MB
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Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations combines biology and physics to show how water moves through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. This text explores the instrumentation and the methods used to measure the status of water in soil and plants. Principles are clearly presented with the aid of diagrams, anatomical figures, and images of instrumentation. The methods on instrumentation can be used by researchers, consultants, and the military to monitor soil degradation, including measurements of soil compaction, repellency, oxygen diffusion rate, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Intended for graduate students in plant and soil science programs, this book also serves as a useful reference for agronomists, plant ecologists, and agricultural engineers. * Principles are presented in an easy-to-understand style * Heavily illustrated with more than 200 figures; diagrams are professionally drawn * Anatomical figures show root, stem, leaf, and stomata * Figures of instruments show how they work * Book is carefully referenced, giving sources for all information * Struggles and accomplishments of scientists who developed the theories are given in short biographies.

Principles Of Soil And Plant Water Relations

Author: M. B. Kirkham
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780124200227
Size: 74.20 MB
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Combines biology and physics to illustrate water movement through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. This revised edition of an essential text describes the principles of water relations within soils, followed by the uptake of water and its subsequent movement throughout and from the plant body. This is presented as a progressive series of physical and biological interrelations, and each topic is treated in detail on its own. This book also describes the equipment used to measure water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. At the end of each chapter is a biography of a scientist whose principles are discussed in the chapter. In addition to new information on the concept of celestial time, this new edition also includes chapters on methods to determine sap flow in plants and the dual-probe heat-pulse technique to monitor water in the root zone.--COVER.

Water Relations Of Plants And Soils

Author: Paul Jackson Kramer
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124250602
Size: 51.97 MB
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Water Relations of Plants and Soils, successor to the seminal 1983 book by Paul Kramer, covers the entire field of water relations using current concepts and consistent terminology. Emphasis is on the interdependence of processes, including rate of water absorption, rate of transpiration, resistance to water flow into roots, soil factors affecting water availability. New trends in the field, such as the consideration of roots (rather than leaves) as the primary sensors of water stress, are examined in detail. Key Features * Addresses the role of water in the whole range of plant activities * Describes molecular mechanisms of water action in the context of whole plants * Synthesizes recent scientific findings * Relates current concepts to agriculture and ecology * Provides a summary of methods

Elevated Carbon Dioxide

Author: M.B. Kirkham
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439855058
Size: 65.88 MB
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Between 1958 and 2008, the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere increased from 316 to 385 ppm. Continued increases in CO2 concentration will significantly affect long-term climate change, including variations in agricultural yields. Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2. It describes specific results from pioneering experiments performed over a seven-year period in the Evapotranspiration Laboratory at Kansas State University, along with experiments appearing in peer-reviewed journal articles. Select articles from the literature serve as examples in the text. For each paper discussed, the author includes the common and scientific name of the plant under investigation. For each experiment, the author provides the type of soil used (if given in the original article) and general conditions of the experiment. All references are carefully documented so that readers can easily find the original source. The first chapter of the book deals with drought, the three types of photosynthesis, and how water moves through the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. With a focus on soil, the next several chapters discuss the composition of the soil atmosphere, the interaction of elevated CO2 with physical factors that affect root growth, variable oxygen concentration of soil, and when the atmosphere above soil is elevated with CO2. The author goes on to examine the use of carbon isotope ratios in plant science; the effects of elevated CO2 on plant water, osmotic, and turgor potentials; and stomata under elevated CO2, including stomatal conductance and density. The text also explains the effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration and evapotranspiration, explores historical aspects of water use efficiency, compares C3 and C4 plants under elevated CO2, and details the advantages of C4 photosynthesis. The concluding chapters cover plant anatomy, the effects of elevated CO2 on phenology, and measures of plant growth. How have plants responded to increased levels of atmospheric CO2? Are some plants reacting better than others? Drawing on a host of scientific studies, this text explores how rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have impacted water in plants and soils.

Plants And Microclimate

Author: Hamlyn G. Jones
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107511631
Size: 68.70 MB
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This rigorous yet accessible text introduces the key physical and biochemical processes involved in plant interactions with the aerial environment. It is designed to make the more numerical aspects of the subject accessible to plant and environmental science students, and will also provide a valuable reference source to practitioners and researchers in the field. The third edition of this widely recognised text has been completely revised and updated to take account of key developments in the field. Approximately half of the references are new to this edition and relevant online resources are also incorporated for the first time. The recent proliferation of molecular and genetic research on plants is related to whole plant responses, showing how these new approaches can advance our understanding of the biophysical interactions between plants and the atmosphere. Remote sensing technologies and their applications in the study of plant function are also covered in greater detail.

Water Dynamics In Plant Production 2nd Edition

Author: Wilfried Ehlers
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1780643810
Size: 41.27 MB
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Water is the most basic essential for plant growth; an inadequate supply causes severe problems, as plants rely on the water transmitted by soil to meet their physiological and nutritional needs. Since the first edition was published, flooding and droughts throughout the world have made water an even more topical subject, as the importance and instability of our water supplies have been brought to the forefront of daily life. This new edition of Water Dynamics in Plant Production focuses on the dynamics of water through the hydrologic cycle and the associated mechanisms that plants employ to optimize growth and development. It describes the basic scientific principles of water transport in the soil-plant atmosphere continuum, and explains the linkage between transpirational water use and dry matter production. Paying particular attention to the various agronomic strategies for adaptation to climate-driven limitations of water resources, the efficiency of water use in plant production and in achieving an economic yield is presented in detail. This book offers a multidisciplinary introduction to the fundamentals and applications of water dynamics in natural and managed ecosystems. Including text boxes throughout, as well as online supplementary material, it provides an essential state of-the-art resource for students and researchers of soil and plant science, hydrology and agronomy.

Applications Of Soil Physics

Author: Daniel Hillel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323152139
Size: 57.94 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Applications of Soil Physics deals with the applications of soil physics and covers topics ranging from infiltration and surface runoff to groundwater drainage, evaporation from bare-surface soils, and uptake of soil moisture by plants. Water balance and energy balance in the field are also discussed, along with tillage and soil structure management. The development and extension of Penman's evaporation formula is also described. This book is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a systematic description of the field-water cycle and its management, with emphasis on infiltration and runoff; redistribution and drainage; evaporation and transpiration; and irrigation and tillage. Subsequent chapters focus on transpiration from plant canopies; freezing phenomena in soils; scaling and similitude of soil-water phenomena; spatial variability of soil physical properties; and movement of solutes during infiltration into homogeneous soil. Concepts of soil-water availability to plants are considered, together with principles of irrigation management and the advantages and limitations of drip irrigation. This monograph is intended for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of the environmental, engineering, and agronomic sciences.

Soil And Water

Author: Daniel Hillel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323156703
Size: 45.91 MB
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Soil and Water: Physical Principles and Processes describes the physical principles governing the soil-water system and particularly the sequence of processes constituting the cycle of water in the field. Organized into two parts, with a total of 11 chapters, this book first discusses the basic physical properties of both soil and water. Some chapters deal with the state of water in soil and flow of water in saturated and unsaturated soil. The second part focuses on the aspects of field water cycle, starting from the entry of water into soil to the redistribution of soil moisture. It also describes the groundwater drainage, evaporation from bare-surface soils, uptake of soil water by plants, and the water and energy balance in the field. This work is meant for students and professional workers in soil physics and other related disciplines who need or might be interested in a fundamental and up-to-date exposition of soil physics.

Introduction To Environmental Soil Physics

Author: Daniel Hillel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008049577X
Size: 79.62 MB
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An abridged, student-oriented edition of Hillel's earlier published Environmental Soil Physics, Introduction to Environmental Soil Physics is a more succinct elucidation of the physical principles and processes governing the behavior of soil and the vital role it plays in both natural and managed ecosystems. The textbook is self-contained and self-explanatory, with numerous illustrations and sample problems. Based on sound fundamental theory, the textbook leads to a practical consideration of soil as a living system in nature and illustrates the influences of human activity upon soil structure and function. Students, as well as other readers, will better understand the importance of soils and the pivotal possition they occupy with respect to careful and knowledgeable conservation. Written in an engaging and clear style, posing and resolving issues relevant to the terrestrial environment Explores the gamut of the interactions among the phases in the soil and the dynamic interconnection of the soil with the subterranean and atmospheric domains Reveals the salient ideas, approaches, and methods of environmental soil physics Includes numerous illustrative exercises, which are explicitly solved Designed to serve for classroom and laboratory instruction, for self-study, and for reference Oriented toward practical problems in ecology, field-scale hydrology, agronomy, and civil engineering Differs from earlier texts in its wider scope and holistic environmental conception