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Processes Of Believing The Acquisition Maintenance And Change In Creditions

Author: Hans-Ferdinand Angel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319509241
Size: 16.25 MB
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This volume answers the question: Why do we believe what we believe? It examines current research on the concept of beliefs, and the development in our understanding of the process of believing. It takes into account empirical findings in the field of neuroscience regarding the processes that underlie beliefs, and discusses the notion that beyond the interactive exploratory analysis of sensory information from the complex outside world, humans engage in an evaluative analysis by which they attribute personal meaning and relevance to the probabilistic representations of objects and events. Beliefs exert a strong influence on behaviour, decision-making, and identifying and solving problems. Despite their importance, beliefs have until recently not been at the centre of scientific interest. In fact, “belief” is an ill-defined phenomenon. From a transdisciplinary perspective the actual approaches to understanding belief seem incompatible as they attempt to highlight such different topics as “belief – religion”, “belief – spirituality”, “belief – faith”, “belief – knowledge”, “belief – attitude”, “belief – disbelief”, “belief – illusion”, and “believing – brain function”. This situation contradicts the idea that belief is close to pathological phenomena and that it should be eliminated from scientific discussions. Rather, believing is fundamental for understanding the many problems of every-day life. In fact, the book shows that beliefs are relevant for politics, international affairs, economy, law, or religions also in modern societies. This book presents the increasing scientific interest in beliefs and believing, and reflects the change in focus from the content aspect of belief towards the fluid nature of believing.

The Neural Basis Of Human Belief Systems

Author: Frank Krueger
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136234977
Size: 25.27 MB
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Is the everyday understanding of belief susceptible to scientific investigation? Belief is one of the most commonly used, yet unexplained terms in neuroscience. Beliefs can be seen as forms of mental representations and one of the building blocks of our conscious thoughts. This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of what we currently know about the neural basis of human belief systems, and how different belief systems are implemented in the human brain. The chapters in this volume explain how the neural correlates of beliefs mediate a range of explicit and implicit behaviours ranging from moral decision making, to the practice of religion. Drawing inferences from philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, religion, and cognitive neuroscience, the book has important implications for understanding how different belief systems are implemented in the human brain, and outlines the directions which research on the cognitive neuroscience of beliefs should take in the future. The Neural Basis of Human Belief Systems will be of great interest to researchers in the fields of psychology, philosophy, psychiatry, and cognitive neuroscience.

Invitation To The Psychology Of Religion Third Edition

Author: Raymond F. Paloutzian
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462527566
Size: 12.84 MB
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The leading undergraduate psychology of religion text, this engaging book synthesizes cutting-edge theories and findings into an accessible account enlivened by personal reflections and contemporary examples. Raymond F. Paloutzian offers an authoritative overview of theoretical and empirical foundations; experiential, developmental, personality, and sociocultural dimensions of religion and spirituality; and clinical implications. Students are also given food for thought about bigger questions--how religion influences their own lives; what beliefs or values they hold most dear; and how to live in a multicultural, multireligious world. Each chapter opens with a brief topic outline and concludes with "Take-Home Messages" and suggestions for further reading. New to This Edition: *Reflects many years of scientific and theoretical advances. *Chapters on psychological theories, personality, and physical health. *New organizing concepts: religious meaning systems and the multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. *Additional pedagogical features, including end-of-chapter "Take-Home Messages" and engaging topic boxes. *Descriptions of cutting-edge research methods. *Increased attention to multicultural issues.

Why We Believe In God S

Author: J. Anderson Thomson
Publisher: Pitchstone Publishing (US&CA)
ISBN: 0984493239
Size: 58.84 MB
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In this groundbreaking volume, J. Anderson Thomson, Jr., MD, with Clare Aukofer, offers a succinct yet comprehensive study of how and why the human mind generates religious belief. Dr. Thomson, a highly respected practicing psychiatrist with credentials in forensic psychiatry and evolutionary psychology, methodically investigates the components and causes of religious belief in the same way any scientist would investigate the movement of astronomical bodies or the evolution of life over time—that is, as a purely natural phenomenon. Providing compelling evidence from psychology, the cognitive neurosciences, and related fields, he, with Ms. Aukofer, presents an easily accessible and exceptionally convincing case that god(s) were created by man—not vice versa. With this slim volume, Dr. Thomson establishes himself as a must-read thinker and leading voice on the primacy of reason and science over superstition and religion.

The Righteous Mind

Author: Jonathan Haidt
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0307455777
Size: 70.25 MB
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Presents a groundbreaking investigation into the origins of morality at the core of religion and politics, offering scholarly insight into the motivations behind cultural clashes that are polarizing America.

The Natural History Of Religion

Author: David Hume
Publisher: Charles River Editors via PublishDrive
ISBN: 1531258603
Size: 60.41 MB
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David Hume was a prominent Scottish philosopher and historian in the 18th century. Hume’s works are still influential today as they feature his ideology of empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism. This edition of The Natural History of Religion includes a table of contents.

Why Religion Is Natural And Science Is Not

Author: Robert N. McCauley
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199827265
Size: 40.39 MB
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A comparison of the cognitive foundations of religion and science and an argument that religion is cognitively natural and that science is cognitively unnatural.

Handbook Of The Psychology Of Religion And Spirituality Second Edition

Author: Raymond F. Paloutzian
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462520537
Size: 59.72 MB
Format: PDF
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Paloutzian (experimental and social psychology, Westmont College) and Park (psychology, U. of Connecticut) provide a 33-chapter handbook on the psychology of religion and spirituality, for social and clinical psychologists, pastoral counselors, and students and researchers in psychology and religious studies. Psychologists and a few religious studies specialists from the US and some countries in Europe address the foundations, including definitions, core issues, measurement assessment, research methods, psychodynamic psychology and religion, and evolutionary psychology as a foundation for the psychology of religion; religious and spiritual development across the lifespan; and the neural and cognitive bases of religion and connections to emotion, personality, culture, and social behavior. They discuss religious practices and rituals, conversion experiences, prayer, spiritual struggles, fundamentalism, forgiveness, values, and morality, and implications for individual and collective well-being in terms of health, mental health, coping, psychotherapy, workplace spirituality research, terrorism, and other areas. New topics in this edition include cross-cultural issues, spiritual goals, emotional values, and mindfulness. Most chapters have been redesigned or rewritten, with 25 new and eight revised chapters. The main themes of the book are more integrated, and the introductory and concluding chapters argue that the application of religious meaning systems and the multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm can allow reconceptualization of the field and expand research. Annotation ©2013 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).

Never Pure

Author: Steven Shapin
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801894204
Size: 17.15 MB
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Steven Shapin argues that science, for all its immense authority and power, is and always has been a human endeavor, subject to human capacities and limits. Put simply, science has never been pure. To be human is to err, and we understand science better when we recognize it as the laborious achievement of fallible, imperfect, and historically situated human beings. Shapin’s essays collected here include reflections on the historical relationships between science and common sense, between science and modernity, and between science and the moral order. They explore the relevance of physical and social settings in the making of scientific knowledge, the methods appropriate to understanding science historically, dietetics as a compelling site for historical inquiry, the identity of those who have made scientific knowledge, and the means by which science has acquired credibility and authority. This wide-ranging and intensely interdisciplinary collection by one of the most distinguished historians and sociologists of science represents some of the leading edges of change in the scholarly understanding of science over the past several decades.

Islam Observed

Author: Clifford Geertz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226285115
Size: 54.63 MB
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"In four brief chapters," writes Clifford Geertz in his preface, "I have attempted both to lay out a general framework for the comparative analysis of religion and to apply it to a study of the development of a supposedly single creed, Islam, in two quite contrasting civilizations, the Indonesian and the Moroccan." Mr. Geertz begins his argument by outlining the problem conceptually and providing an overview of the two countries. He then traces the evolution of their classical religious styles which, with disparate settings and unique histories, produced strikingly different spiritual climates. So in Morocco, the Islamic conception of life came to mean activism, moralism, and intense individuality, while in Indonesia the same concept emphasized aestheticism, inwardness, and the radical dissolution of personality. In order to assess the significance of these interesting developments, Mr. Geertz sets forth a series of theoretical observations concerning the social role of religion.