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Processes Of Believing The Acquisition Maintenance And Change In Creditions

Author: Hans-Ferdinand Angel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319509241
Size: 59.38 MB
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This volume answers the question: Why do we believe what we believe? It examines current research on the concept of beliefs, and the development in our understanding of the process of believing. It takes into account empirical findings in the field of neuroscience regarding the processes that underlie beliefs, and discusses the notion that beyond the interactive exploratory analysis of sensory information from the complex outside world, humans engage in an evaluative analysis by which they attribute personal meaning and relevance to the probabilistic representations of objects and events. Beliefs exert a strong influence on behaviour, decision-making, and identifying and solving problems. Despite their importance, beliefs have until recently not been at the centre of scientific interest. In fact, “belief” is an ill-defined phenomenon. From a transdisciplinary perspective the actual approaches to understanding belief seem incompatible as they attempt to highlight such different topics as “belief – religion”, “belief – spirituality”, “belief – faith”, “belief – knowledge”, “belief – attitude”, “belief – disbelief”, “belief – illusion”, and “believing – brain function”. This situation contradicts the idea that belief is close to pathological phenomena and that it should be eliminated from scientific discussions. Rather, believing is fundamental for understanding the many problems of every-day life. In fact, the book shows that beliefs are relevant for politics, international affairs, economy, law, or religions also in modern societies. This book presents the increasing scientific interest in beliefs and believing, and reflects the change in focus from the content aspect of belief towards the fluid nature of believing.

The Neural Basis Of Human Belief Systems

Author: Frank Krueger
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136234977
Size: 29.41 MB
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Is the everyday understanding of belief susceptible to scientific investigation? Belief is one of the most commonly used, yet unexplained terms in neuroscience. Beliefs can be seen as forms of mental representations and one of the building blocks of our conscious thoughts. This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of what we currently know about the neural basis of human belief systems, and how different belief systems are implemented in the human brain. The chapters in this volume explain how the neural correlates of beliefs mediate a range of explicit and implicit behaviours ranging from moral decision making, to the practice of religion. Drawing inferences from philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, religion, and cognitive neuroscience, the book has important implications for understanding how different belief systems are implemented in the human brain, and outlines the directions which research on the cognitive neuroscience of beliefs should take in the future. The Neural Basis of Human Belief Systems will be of great interest to researchers in the fields of psychology, philosophy, psychiatry, and cognitive neuroscience.

Invitation To The Psychology Of Religion Third Edition

Author: Raymond F. Paloutzian
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462527566
Size: 11.81 MB
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The leading undergraduate psychology of religion text, this engaging book synthesizes cutting-edge theories and findings into an accessible account enlivened by personal reflections and contemporary examples. Raymond F. Paloutzian offers an authoritative overview of theoretical and empirical foundations; experiential, developmental, personality, and sociocultural dimensions of religion and spirituality; and clinical implications. Students are also given food for thought about bigger questions--how religion influences their own lives; what beliefs or values they hold most dear; and how to live in a multicultural, multireligious world. Each chapter opens with a brief topic outline and concludes with "Take-Home Messages" and suggestions for further reading. New to This Edition: *Reflects many years of scientific and theoretical advances. *Chapters on psychological theories, personality, and physical health. *New organizing concepts: religious meaning systems and the multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. *Additional pedagogical features, including end-of-chapter "Take-Home Messages" and engaging topic boxes. *Descriptions of cutting-edge research methods. *Increased attention to multicultural issues.

New Developments In The Cognitive Science Of Religion

Author: Hans van Eyghen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319902393
Size: 16.10 MB
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It is widely thought that the cognitive science of religion (CSR) may have a bearing on the epistemic status of religious beliefs and on other topics in philosophy of religion. Epistemologists have used theories from CSR to argue both for and against the rationality of religious beliefs, or they have claimed that CSR is neutral vis-à-vis the epistemic status of religious belief. However, since CSR is a rapidly evolving discipline, a great deal of earlier research on the topic has become dated. Furthermore, most of the debate on the epistemic consequences of CSR has not taken into account insights from the philosophy of science, such as explanatory pluralism and explanatory levels. This volume overcomes these deficiencies. This volume brings together new philosophical reflection on CSR. It examines the influence of CSR theories on the epistemic status of religious beliefs; it discusses its impact on philosophy of religion; and it offers new insights for CSR. The book addresses the question of whether or not the plurality of theories in CSR makes epistemic conclusions about religious belief unwarranted. It also explores the impact of CSR on other topics in philosophy of religion like the cognitive consequences of sin and naturalism. Finally, the book investigates what the main theories in CSR aim to explain, and addresses the strengths and weaknesses of CSR.

Indian Philosophy Of Religion

Author: R.W. Perrett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400924585
Size: 19.21 MB
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With a few notable exceptions, analytical philosophy of religion in the West still continues to focus almost entirely on the Iudaeo-Christian tradition. In particular, it is all too customary to ignore the rich fund of concepts and arguments supplied by the Indian religious tradition. This is a pity, for it gratuitously impoverishes the scope of much contemporary philosophy of religion and precludes the attainment of any insights into Indian religions comparable to those that the clarity and rigour of analytic philosophy has made possible for the Iudaeo-Christian tradition. This volume seeks to redress the imbalance. The original idea was to invite a number of Indian and Western philosophers to contribute essays treating of Indian religious concepts in the style of contemporary analytical philosophy of religion. No further restrietion was placed upon the contributors and the resulting essays (all previously unpublished) exhibit a diversity of themes and approaches. Many arrangements of the material herein are doubtless defensible. The rationale for the one that has been adopted is perhaps best presented through some introductory remarks about the essays themselves.

The Righteous Mind

Author: Jonathan Haidt
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0307455777
Size: 66.39 MB
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Presents a groundbreaking investigation into the origins of morality at the core of religion and politics, offering scholarly insight into the motivations behind cultural clashes that are polarizing America.

The Interpretation Of Cultures

Author: Clifford Geertz
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465093566
Size: 30.84 MB
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In The Interpretation of Cultures, the most original anthropologist of his generation moved far beyond the traditional confines of his discipline to develop an important new concept of culture. This groundbreaking book, winner of the 1974 Sorokin Award of the American Sociological Association, helped define for an entire generation of anthropologists what their field is ultimately about.

Why Religion Is Natural And Science Is Not

Author: Robert N. McCauley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199341540
Size: 47.80 MB
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A comparison of the cognitive foundations of religion and science and an argument that religion is cognitively natural and that science is cognitively unnatural.

Conjectures And Refutations

Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135971374
Size: 66.57 MB
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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Organization Development

Author: Gary McLean
Publisher: Berrett-Koehler Publishers
ISBN: 9781605093345
Size: 13.63 MB
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Designed for use in undergraduate and graduate programs in organization development, management, human resource development, and industrial and organizational psychology, Organization Development provides readers with an overview of the field and acquaints them with the basic principles, practices, values, and skills of OD. Covering every aspect of the work of an OD professional and featuring numerous illustrative case studies, it shows how OD professionals actually get work and what the first steps in any OD effort should be. Author Gary McLean surveys different ways to assess an organizational situation—including a comparison of the Action Research and Appreciative Inquiry models—and provides forms for devising an action plan based on that assessment. He then looks at how to choose and implement a range of interventions at different levels, as well as how to evaluate the results of an intervention. Organization Development goes beyond the organizational level to look at the application of OD on community, national, regional, and global levels. And it successfully combines theory and practice; process and outcomes; performance and affective results; effectiveness and efficiency.