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Protecting The Ozone Layer

Author: Stephen O. Andersen
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 9781849772266
Size: 62.76 MB
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In the 1970s the world became aware of a huge danger: the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer by CFCs escaping into the atmosphere, and the damage this could do to human health and the food chain. So great was the threat that by 1987 the UN had succeeded in coordinating an international treaty to phase out emissions; which, over the following 15 years has been implemented. It has been hailed as an outstanding success. It needed the participation of all the parties: governments, industry, scientists, campaigners, NGOs and the media, and is a model for future treaties. This volume provides the authoritative and comprehensive history of the whole process from the earliest warning signs to the present. It is an invaluable record for all those involved and a necessary reference for future negotiations to a wide range of scholars, students and professionals.

Twenty Years Of Ozone Decline

Author: Christos Zerefos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048124697
Size: 35.32 MB
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Homer speaks of lightning bolts after which ‘a grim reek of sulphur bursts forth’ and the air was ‘?lled with reeking brimstone’. (Homer 3000 BC). The odour was not actually the smell of sulphur dioxide associated with burning sulphur, but rather was the ?rst recorded detection of the presence of another strong odour, that of ozone (O ) in Earth’s atmosphere. These molecules were formed by the passage of 3 lightning through the air, created by splitting the abundant molecular oxygen (O ) 2 molecules into two, followed by the addition of each of the free O atoms to another O to form the triatomic product. In fact, most of the ozone molecules present 2 in the atmosphere at any time have been made by this same two-step splitti- plus-combination process, although the initiating cause usually begins with very energetic solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation rather than lightning. Many thousands of years later, the modern history of ozone began with its synthesis in the laboratory of H. F. Schonbein in 1840 (Nolte 1999), although the positive con?rmation of its three-oxygen atom chemical formula came along sometime later. Scienti?c interest in high-altitude stratospheric ozone dates back to 1881 when Hartley measured the spectrum of ozone in the laboratory and found that its ability to absorb UV light extended only to 293nm at the long wavelength end (Hartley 1881a).

Technology Transfer For The Ozone Layer

Author: Stephen O. Andersen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113655517X
Size: 45.55 MB
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'Imagine the pride of earning the Nobel Prize for warning that CFCs were destroying the ozone layer. Then imagine that citizens, policymakers, and business executives heeded the warning and transformed markets to protect the earth. This book is the story of why we can all be optimistic about the future if we are willing to be brave and dedicated world citizens.' MARIO MOLINA, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry and Professor, University of California This book tells how the Montreal Protocol, the most successful global environmental agreement so far, stimulated the development and worldwide transfer of technologies to protect the ozone layer.Technology transfer is the crux of the 230 international environmental treaties and is essential to fighting climate change. While debate rages about obstacles to technology transfer, until now there has been no comprehensive assessment of what actually works to remove the obstacles. The authors, leaders in the field, assess over 1000 technology transfer projects funded under the Montreal Protocols Multilateral Fund and the Global Environment Facility, and identify lessons that can be applied to technology transfer for climate change.

Die Stratosph Re

Author: Karin Labitzke
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642599893
Size: 62.29 MB
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In diesem Buch wird einerseits die spannende Entdeckung der Stratosphäre selbst und verschiedener unerwarteter Phänomene in der Stratosphäre beschrieben: ein bemannter Ballonflug im Jahr 1901 bis in 11 km Höhe; eine Expedition zum Victoriasee im Jahr 1908; die Entdeckung der Ozonschicht um 1930, des "Berliner Phänomens" im Jahr 1952, des Einflusses von Vulkaneruptionen im Jahr 1982, des Ozonlochs im Jahr 1985 und des Einflusses der Sonnenaktivität im Jahr 1987. Andererseits wird gezeigt, wie diese Erscheinungen miteinander verknüpft sind und wie sie anthropogene und natürliche Schwankungen in unserem Klimasystem verursachen. Am Beispiel der Stratosphäre soll das Buch zum Verständnis der Erforschung komplizierter Zusammenhänge in der Natur beitragen.

Environmental Science And Technology

Author: Stanley E. Manahan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849395123
Size: 78.46 MB
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Formally established by the EPA nearly 15 years ago, the concept of green chemistry is beginning to come of age. Although several books cover green chemistry and chemical engineering, none of them transfer green principles to science and technology in general and their impact on the future. Defining industrial ecology, Environmental Science and Technology: A Sustainable Approach to Green Science and Technology provides a general overview of green science and technology and their essential role in ensuring environmental sustainability. Written by a leading expert, the book provides the essential background for understanding green science and technology and how they relate to sustainability. In addition to the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere traditionally covered in environmental science books, this book is unique in recognizing the anthrosphere as a distinct sphere of the environment. The author explains how the anthrosphere can be designed and operated in a manner that does not degrade environmental quality and, in most favorable circumstances, may even enhance it. With the current emphasis shifting from end-of-pipe solutions to pollution prevention and control of resource consumption, green principles are increasingly moving into the mainstream. This book provides the foundation not only for understanding green science and technology, but also for taking its application to the next level.

Sustainable Development

Author: Mostafa Kamal Tolba
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483163512
Size: 69.52 MB
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Sustainable Development: Constraints and Opportunities contains a selection of the author's speeches made between 1982 and 1986. During this 5-year period knowledge of environment-development relationships has grown considerably, and this evolving perception can be discerned in his statements spanning those years. Taken together, the common thread binding all the speeches is the fact that long-term development can only be achieved through sound environmental management, that is, sustainable development, which is the title of this book. The speeches included in this volume were delivered in the author's capacity as the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). They thus cover primarily broad areas of interest of UNEP's programs and policies. Key topics discussed include environmental protection; disarmament and the environment; environmental information for engineers; the impact of human settlements on the environment; environmental management in the Gulf; the causes, effects, and prevention of desertification; and the environmental impact assessment process.

Healing The Ozone Layer With Small Brushes

Author:
Publisher: UNEP/Earthprint
ISBN: 9280718169
Size: 68.32 MB
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The 1992 Earth Summit produced Agenda 21, which highlights the importance of listening to children when it comes to protecting the environment. The 1998 UNEP Children's Painting Competition was a step towards doing just that. Children from all over the world were invited to paint on the subject of the ozone layer and this selection of pictures from the finalists shows not only how much these young people are concerned about ozone depletion, but also how effective they can be in communicating the nature of the problem. These paintings are delightful to look at and inspire us with their energy, creativity and visual sophistication.