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Protective Relaying

Author: Walter A. Elmore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824709723
Size: 30.57 MB
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Targeting the latest microprocessor technologies for more sophisticated applications in the field of power system short circuit detection, this revised and updated source imparts fundamental concepts and breakthrough science for the isolation of faulty equipment and minimization of damage in power system apparatus. The Second Edition clearly describes key procedures, devices, and elements crucial to the protection and control of power system function and stability. It includes chapters and expertise from the most knowledgeable experts in the field of protective relaying, and describes microprocessor techniques and troubleshooting strategies in clear and straightforward language.

Protective Relaying

Author: J. Lewis Blackburn
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439888116
Size: 25.54 MB
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For many years, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications has been the go-to text for gaining proficiency in the technological fundamentals of power system protection. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, the Fourth Edition retains the core concepts at the heart of power system analysis. Featuring refinements and additions to accommodate recent technological progress, the text: Explores developments in the creation of smarter, more flexible protective systems based on advances in the computational power of digital devices and the capabilities of communication systems that can be applied within the power grid Examines the regulations related to power system protection and how they impact the way protective relaying systems are designed, applied, set, and monitored Considers the evaluation of protective systems during system disturbances and describes the tools available for analysis Addresses the benefits and problems associated with applying microprocessor-based devices in protection schemes Contains an expanded discussion of intertie protection requirements at dispersed generation facilities Providing information on a mixture of old and new equipment, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition reflects the present state of power systems currently in operation, making it a handy reference for practicing protection engineers. And yet its challenging end-of-chapter problems, coverage of the basic mathematical requirements for fault analysis, and real-world examples ensure engineering students receive a practical, effective education on protective systems. Plus, with the inclusion of a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption, the Fourth Edition is ready-made for classroom implementation.

Pilot Protective Relaying

Author: Elmore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824781958
Size: 12.27 MB
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This text concentrates on the fundamentals of protective relaying and aims to provide lasting information in intelligible language. It covers the relative qualities of modern transmission line systems, communications channels, three-terminal applications and program design for microprocessors, and also supplies an encyclopaedic bibliography listing professional papers useful to the relay engineer.

Protective Relay Principles

Author: Anthony M. Sleva
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420014174
Size: 15.22 MB
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Improve Failure Detection and Optimize Protection In the ever-evolving field of protective relay technology, an engineer’s personal preference and professional judgment are as important to power system protection as the physical relays used to detect and isolate abnormal conditions. Invaluable Insights from an Experienced Expert Protective Relay Principles focuses on probable power system failure modes and the important characteristics of the protective relays used to detect these postulated failures. The book presents useful new concepts in a way that is easier to understand because they are equally relevant to older, electromechanical and solid-state relays, and newer, more versatile microprocessor-based relays. It introduces the applications, considerations, and setting philosophies used in transmission-line, distribution-line, and substation applications, covering concepts associated with general system operations and fault detection. Topics include relay load limits, cold load pickup, voltage recovery, and arc flash. The author also delves into the philosophies that engineers employ in both urban and rural areas, with a detailed consideration of setpoint function. Analysis of Key Concepts That Are Usually Just Glossed Over This versatile text is ideal for new engineers to use as a tutorial before they open the instruction manuals that accompany multi-function microprocessor-based relays. Guiding readers through the transient loading conditions that can result in relay misoperation, the author elaborates on concepts that are not generally discussed, but can be very helpful in specific applications. Readers will come away with an excellent grasp of important design considerations for working with overcurrent, over- and undervoltage, impedance, distance, and differential type relay functions, either individually or in combination. Also useful for students as a textbook, this book includes practical examples for many applications, and offers guidance for more unusual ones.

Protective Relaying For Power Generation Systems

Author: Donald Reimert
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420030485
Size: 35.87 MB
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Power outages have considerable social and economic impacts, and effective protection schemes are crucial to avoiding them. While most textbooks focus on the transmission and distribution aspects of protective relays, Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems is the first to focus on protection of motors and generators from a power generation perspective. It also includes workbook constructions that allow students to perform protection-related calculations in Mathcad® and Excel®. This text provides both a general overview and in-depth discussion of each topic, making it easy to tailor the material to students' needs. It also covers topics not found in other texts on the subject, including detailed time decrement generator fault calculations and minimum excitation limit. The author clearly explains the potential for damage and damaging mechanisms related to each protection function and includes thorough derivations of complex system interactions. Such derivations underlie the various rule-of-thumb setting criteria, provide insight into why the rules-of-thumb work and when they are not appropriate, and are useful for post-incident analysis. The book's flexible approach combines theoretical discussions with example settings that offer quick how-to information. Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems integrates fundamental knowledge with practical tools to ensure students have a thorough understanding of protection schemes and issues that arise during or after abnormal operation.

The Art Science Of Protective Relaying C Russell Mason 2015

Author: C. Russell Mason
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 11.54 MB
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We usually think of an electric power system in terms of its more impressive partsÐthe big generating stations, transformers, high-voltage lines, etc. While these are some of the basic elements, there are many other necessary and fascinating components. Protective relaying is one of these. The role of protective relaying in electric-power-system design and operation is explained by a brief examination of the over-all background. There are three aspects of a power system that will serve the purposes of this examination. These aspects are as follows: A. Normal operation B. Prevention of electrical failure. C. Mitigation of the effects of electrical failure. The term Ònormal operationÓ assumes no failures of equipment, no mistakes of personnel, nor Òacts of God.Ó It involves the minimum requirements for supplying the existing load and a certain amount of anticipated future load. Some of the considerations are: A. Choice between hydro, steam, or other sources of power. B. Location of generating stations. C. Transmission of power to the load. D. Study of the load characteristics and planning for its future growth. E. Metering F. Voltage and frequency regulation. G. System operation. E. Normal maintenance. The provisions for normal operation involve the major expense for equipment and operation, but a system designed according to this aspect alone could not possibly meet present-day requirements. Electrical equipment failures would cause intolerable outages. There must be additional provisions to minimize damage to equipment and interruptions to the service when failures occur. Two recourses are open: (1) to incorporate features of design aimed at preventing failures, and (2) to include provisions for mitigating the effects of failure when it occurs. Modern 2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING power-system design employs varying degrees of both recourses, as dictated by the economics of any particular situation. Notable advances continue to be made toward greater reliability. But also, increasingly greater reliance is being placed on electric power. Consequently, even though the probability of failure is decreased, the tolerance of the possible harm to the service is also decreased. But it is futile-or at least not economically justifiable-to try to prevent failures completely. Sooner or later the law of diminishing returns makes itself felt. Where this occurs will vary between systems and between parts of a system, but, when this point is reached, further expenditure for failure prevention is discouraged. It is much more profitable, then, to let some failures occur and to provide for mitigating their effects. The type of electrical failure that causes greatest concern is the short circuit, or ÒfaultÓ as it is usually called, but there are other abnormal operating conditions peculiar to certain elements of the system that also require attention. Some of the features of design and operation aimed at preventing electrical failure are: A. Provision of adequate insulation. B. Coordination of insulation strength with the capabilities of lightning arresters. C. Use of overhead ground wires and low tower-footing resistance. D. Design for mechanical strength to reduce exposure, and to minimize the likelihood of failure causable by animals, birds, insects, dirt, sleet, etc. E. Proper operation and maintenance practices. Some of the features of design and operation for mitigating the effects of failure are: A. Features that mitigate the immediate effects of an electrical failure. 1. Design to limit the magnitude of short-circuit current.1 a. By avoiding too large concentrations of generating capacity. b. By using current-limiting impedance. 2. Design to withstand mechanical stresses and heating owing to short-circuit currents. 3. Time-delay undervoltage devices on circuit breakers to prevent dropping loads during momentary voltage dips. 4. Ground-fault neutralizers (Petersen coils). B. Features for promptly disconnecting the faulty element. 1. Protective relaying. 2. Circuit breakers with sufficient interrupting capacity. 3. Fuses. C. Features that mitigate the loss of the faulty element. 1. Alternate circuits. 2. Reserve generator and transformer capacity. 3. Automatic reclosing. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING 3 D. Features that operate throughout the period from the inception of the fault until after its removal, to maintain voltage and stability. 1. Automatic voltage regulation. 2. Stability characteristics of generators. E. Means for observing the electiveness of the foregoing features. 1. Automatic oscillographs. 2. Efficient human observation and record keeping. F. Frequent surveys as system changes or additions are made, to be sure that the foregoing features are still adequate. Thus, protective relaying is one of several features of system design concerned with minimizing damage to equipment and interruptions to service when electrical failures occur. When we say that relays Òprotect,Ó we mean that, together with other equipment, the relays help to minimize damage and improve service. It will be evident that all the mitigation features are dependent on one another for successfully minimizing the effects of failure. Therefore, the capabilities and the application requirements of protective-relaying equipments should be considered concurrently with the other features.2 This statement is emphasized because there is sometimes a tendency to think of the protective-relaying equipment after all other design considerations are irrevocably settled. Within economic limits, an electric power system should be designed so that it can be adequately protected. THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING The function of protective relaying is to cause the prompt removal from service of any element of a power system when it suffers a short circuit, or when it starts to operate in any abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interfere with the effective operation of the rest of the system. The relaying equipment is aided in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting the faulty element when they are called upon to do so by the relaying equipment. Circuit breakers are generally located so that each generator, transformer, bus, transmission line, etc., can be completely disconnected from the rest of the system. These circuit breakers must have sufficient capacity so that they can carry momentarily the maximum short-circuit current that can flow through them, and then interrupt this current; they must also withstand closing in on such a short circuit and then interrupting it according to certain prescribed standards.3 Fusing is employed where protective relays and circuit breakers are not economically justifiable. Although the principal function of protective relaying is to mitigate the effects of short circuits, other abnormal operating conditions arise that also require the services of protective relaying. This is particularly true of generators and motors. A secondary function of protective relaying is to provide indication of the location and type of failure. Such data not only assist in expediting repair but also, by comparison with 4 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING human observation and automatic oscillograph records, they provide means for analyzing the effectiveness of the fault-prevention and mitigation features including the protective relaying itself. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING Let us consider for the moment only the relaying equipment for the protection against short circuits. There are two groups of such equipmentÐone which we shall call ÒprimaryÓ relaying, and the other Òback-upÓ relaying. Primary relaying is the first line of defense, whereas back-up relaying functions only when primary relaying fails.

Numerical Differential Protection

Author: Gerhard Ziegler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3895786705
Size: 61.56 MB
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Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines. Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing. The emphasis is then placed on the different variants of differential protection and their practical application illustrated by concrete examples. This is completed by recommendations for commissioning, testing and maintenance. Finally the design and management of modern differential protection is explained by means of the latest Siemens SIPROTEC relay series. As a textbook and standard work in one, this book covers all topics, which have to be paid attention to for planning, designing, configuring and applying differential protection systems. The book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of differential protection, as well as the experienced user entering the area of numerical differential protection. Furthermore, it serves as a reference guide for solving application problems. For the new edition all contents have been revised, extended and updated to the latest state-of-the-art of protective relaying.

Digital Protection

Author: Lakneshwar Prakash Singh
Publisher: New Age International
ISBN: 9788122410532
Size: 36.24 MB
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The Present Edition Of The Book Contains Almost All The Topics Connected With Protection Schemes. The Book, Which Consists Of Ten Main Chapters And Two Appendices, Starts With The Chapter On Introduction, And Includes Chapters On Fundamental And Basic Theory Of Protection Schemes, Definition Of Various Terms, Different Types Of Protective Relaying Schemes, Generalized Mathematical Theory Of Protective Relay, Relay As A Comparator, Single Input, Dual Input And Multi- Input Comparator, Different Types And Arrangement Of Protection Schemes For Various Components And Detailed Studies Of Electromechanical, Electronics, Static And Digital Relaying Schemes. The Digital Protection Of Synchronous Machines, Transformer And Transmission Line Based, Both On Fundamental And Travelling Wave Phenomena, Are Dealt With In Detail. Also Included In The Present Edition, Are The Related Topics Such As Theory And Design Of Dynamic Test Bench, P.C. Based Relay Setting And Coordination, P.C. Based Short Circuit Studies And Ultra High Speed Relaying Schemes.The Present Edition Which Contains Almost All The Topics Of Current Interest In The Area Of Protective Relaying, Will Certainly Be Very Useful To The Teachers, Students And Engineers Working With The Utilities. The Present Edition Is The Result Of Teaching By The Author To The Undergraduate And Postgraduate Level Classes And Supervising Several Doctoral And Master Thesis And Graduate Level Projects In The Area Of Power System Protection At The Indian Institute Of Technology, Kanpur, For More Than Two Decades. The Content Of The Present Edition Has Been Class-Tested For Several Years At The Undergraduate And Postgraduate Level Classes At L.L.T., Kanpur. It Has Also Been Tested In Several Intensive Courses Offered By The Author Under Qip And Other Schemes To The Teachers Of Academic Institutions And Also Engineers Working With Utilities.

Power System Relaying

Author: Stanley H. Horowitz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118701518
Size: 42.89 MB
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With emphasis on power system protection from the network operator perspective, this classic textbook explains the fundamentals of relaying and power system phenomena including stability, protection and reliability. The fourth edition brings coverage up-to-date with important advancements in protective relaying due to significant changes in the conventional electric power system that will integrate renewable forms of energy and, in some countries, adoption of the Smart Grid initiative. New features of the Fourth Edition include: an entirely new chapter on protection considerations for renewable energy sources, looking at grid interconnection techniques, codes, protection considerations and practices. new concepts in power system protection such as Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and system integrity protection (SIPS) -how to use WAMS for protection, and SIPS and control with WAMS. phasor measurement units (PMU), transmission line current differential, high voltage dead tank circuit breakers, and relays for multi-terminal lines. revisions to the Bus Protection Guide IEEE C37.234 (2009) and to the sections on additional protective requirements and restoration. Used by universities and industry courses throughout the world, Power System Relaying is an essential text for graduate students in electric power engineering and a reference for practising relay and protection engineers who want to be kept up to date with the latest advances in the industry.

Principles Of Electrical Safety

Author: Peter E. Sutherland
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118950348
Size: 55.69 MB
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Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series’ of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. . • Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety • Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body • Serves as a preparatory guide for today’s practicing engineers