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Protective Relaying

Author: Walter A. Elmore
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824709723
Size: 21.69 MB
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Targeting the latest microprocessor technologies for more sophisticated applications in the field of power system short circuit detection, this revised and updated source imparts fundamental concepts and breakthrough science for the isolation of faulty equipment and minimization of damage in power system apparatus. The Second Edition clearly describes key procedures, devices, and elements crucial to the protection and control of power system function and stability. It includes chapters and expertise from the most knowledgeable experts in the field of protective relaying, and describes microprocessor techniques and troubleshooting strategies in clear and straightforward language.

Protective Relaying

Author: J. Lewis Blackburn
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498760007
Size: 66.97 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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For many years, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications has been the go-to text for gaining proficiency in the technological fundamentals of power system protection. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, the Fourth Edition retains the core concepts at the heart of power system analysis. Featuring refinements and additions to accommodate recent technological progress, the text: Explores developments in the creation of smarter, more flexible protective systems based on advances in the computational power of digital devices and the capabilities of communication systems that can be applied within the power grid Examines the regulations related to power system protection and how they impact the way protective relaying systems are designed, applied, set, and monitored Considers the evaluation of protective systems during system disturbances and describes the tools available for analysis Addresses the benefits and problems associated with applying microprocessor-based devices in protection schemes Contains an expanded discussion of intertie protection requirements at dispersed generation facilities Providing information on a mixture of old and new equipment, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition reflects the present state of power systems currently in operation, making it a handy reference for practicing protection engineers. And yet its challenging end-of-chapter problems, coverage of the basic mathematical requirements for fault analysis, and real-world examples ensure engineering students receive a practical, effective education on protective systems. Plus, with the inclusion of a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption, the Fourth Edition is ready-made for classroom implementation.

Protective Relay Principles

Author: Anthony M. Sleva
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420014174
Size: 53.37 MB
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Improve Failure Detection and Optimize Protection In the ever-evolving field of protective relay technology, an engineer’s personal preference and professional judgment are as important to power system protection as the physical relays used to detect and isolate abnormal conditions. Invaluable Insights from an Experienced Expert Protective Relay Principles focuses on probable power system failure modes and the important characteristics of the protective relays used to detect these postulated failures. The book presents useful new concepts in a way that is easier to understand because they are equally relevant to older, electromechanical and solid-state relays, and newer, more versatile microprocessor-based relays. It introduces the applications, considerations, and setting philosophies used in transmission-line, distribution-line, and substation applications, covering concepts associated with general system operations and fault detection. Topics include relay load limits, cold load pickup, voltage recovery, and arc flash. The author also delves into the philosophies that engineers employ in both urban and rural areas, with a detailed consideration of setpoint function. Analysis of Key Concepts That Are Usually Just Glossed Over This versatile text is ideal for new engineers to use as a tutorial before they open the instruction manuals that accompany multi-function microprocessor-based relays. Guiding readers through the transient loading conditions that can result in relay misoperation, the author elaborates on concepts that are not generally discussed, but can be very helpful in specific applications. Readers will come away with an excellent grasp of important design considerations for working with overcurrent, over- and undervoltage, impedance, distance, and differential type relay functions, either individually or in combination. Also useful for students as a textbook, this book includes practical examples for many applications, and offers guidance for more unusual ones.

Pilot Protective Relaying

Author: Elmore
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351424270
Size: 41.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This text concentrates on the fundamentals of protective relaying and aims to provide lasting information in intelligible language. It covers the relative qualities of modern transmission line systems, communications channels, three-terminal applications and program design for microprocessors, and also supplies an encyclopaedic bibliography listing professional papers useful to the relay engineer.

The Art Science Of Protective Relaying C Russell Mason 2015

Author: C. Russell Mason
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 52.19 MB
Format: PDF
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We usually think of an electric power system in terms of its more impressive partsÐthe big generating stations, transformers, high-voltage lines, etc. While these are some of the basic elements, there are many other necessary and fascinating components. Protective relaying is one of these. The role of protective relaying in electric-power-system design and operation is explained by a brief examination of the over-all background. There are three aspects of a power system that will serve the purposes of this examination. These aspects are as follows: A. Normal operation B. Prevention of electrical failure. C. Mitigation of the effects of electrical failure. The term Ònormal operationÓ assumes no failures of equipment, no mistakes of personnel, nor Òacts of God.Ó It involves the minimum requirements for supplying the existing load and a certain amount of anticipated future load. Some of the considerations are: A. Choice between hydro, steam, or other sources of power. B. Location of generating stations. C. Transmission of power to the load. D. Study of the load characteristics and planning for its future growth. E. Metering F. Voltage and frequency regulation. G. System operation. E. Normal maintenance. The provisions for normal operation involve the major expense for equipment and operation, but a system designed according to this aspect alone could not possibly meet present-day requirements. Electrical equipment failures would cause intolerable outages. There must be additional provisions to minimize damage to equipment and interruptions to the service when failures occur. Two recourses are open: (1) to incorporate features of design aimed at preventing failures, and (2) to include provisions for mitigating the effects of failure when it occurs. Modern 2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING power-system design employs varying degrees of both recourses, as dictated by the economics of any particular situation. Notable advances continue to be made toward greater reliability. But also, increasingly greater reliance is being placed on electric power. Consequently, even though the probability of failure is decreased, the tolerance of the possible harm to the service is also decreased. But it is futile-or at least not economically justifiable-to try to prevent failures completely. Sooner or later the law of diminishing returns makes itself felt. Where this occurs will vary between systems and between parts of a system, but, when this point is reached, further expenditure for failure prevention is discouraged. It is much more profitable, then, to let some failures occur and to provide for mitigating their effects. The type of electrical failure that causes greatest concern is the short circuit, or ÒfaultÓ as it is usually called, but there are other abnormal operating conditions peculiar to certain elements of the system that also require attention. Some of the features of design and operation aimed at preventing electrical failure are: A. Provision of adequate insulation. B. Coordination of insulation strength with the capabilities of lightning arresters. C. Use of overhead ground wires and low tower-footing resistance. D. Design for mechanical strength to reduce exposure, and to minimize the likelihood of failure causable by animals, birds, insects, dirt, sleet, etc. E. Proper operation and maintenance practices. Some of the features of design and operation for mitigating the effects of failure are: A. Features that mitigate the immediate effects of an electrical failure. 1. Design to limit the magnitude of short-circuit current.1 a. By avoiding too large concentrations of generating capacity. b. By using current-limiting impedance. 2. Design to withstand mechanical stresses and heating owing to short-circuit currents. 3. Time-delay undervoltage devices on circuit breakers to prevent dropping loads during momentary voltage dips. 4. Ground-fault neutralizers (Petersen coils). B. Features for promptly disconnecting the faulty element. 1. Protective relaying. 2. Circuit breakers with sufficient interrupting capacity. 3. Fuses. C. Features that mitigate the loss of the faulty element. 1. Alternate circuits. 2. Reserve generator and transformer capacity. 3. Automatic reclosing. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING 3 D. Features that operate throughout the period from the inception of the fault until after its removal, to maintain voltage and stability. 1. Automatic voltage regulation. 2. Stability characteristics of generators. E. Means for observing the electiveness of the foregoing features. 1. Automatic oscillographs. 2. Efficient human observation and record keeping. F. Frequent surveys as system changes or additions are made, to be sure that the foregoing features are still adequate. Thus, protective relaying is one of several features of system design concerned with minimizing damage to equipment and interruptions to service when electrical failures occur. When we say that relays Òprotect,Ó we mean that, together with other equipment, the relays help to minimize damage and improve service. It will be evident that all the mitigation features are dependent on one another for successfully minimizing the effects of failure. Therefore, the capabilities and the application requirements of protective-relaying equipments should be considered concurrently with the other features.2 This statement is emphasized because there is sometimes a tendency to think of the protective-relaying equipment after all other design considerations are irrevocably settled. Within economic limits, an electric power system should be designed so that it can be adequately protected. THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING The function of protective relaying is to cause the prompt removal from service of any element of a power system when it suffers a short circuit, or when it starts to operate in any abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interfere with the effective operation of the rest of the system. The relaying equipment is aided in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting the faulty element when they are called upon to do so by the relaying equipment. Circuit breakers are generally located so that each generator, transformer, bus, transmission line, etc., can be completely disconnected from the rest of the system. These circuit breakers must have sufficient capacity so that they can carry momentarily the maximum short-circuit current that can flow through them, and then interrupt this current; they must also withstand closing in on such a short circuit and then interrupting it according to certain prescribed standards.3 Fusing is employed where protective relays and circuit breakers are not economically justifiable. Although the principal function of protective relaying is to mitigate the effects of short circuits, other abnormal operating conditions arise that also require the services of protective relaying. This is particularly true of generators and motors. A secondary function of protective relaying is to provide indication of the location and type of failure. Such data not only assist in expediting repair but also, by comparison with 4 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING human observation and automatic oscillograph records, they provide means for analyzing the effectiveness of the fault-prevention and mitigation features including the protective relaying itself. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING Let us consider for the moment only the relaying equipment for the protection against short circuits. There are two groups of such equipmentÐone which we shall call ÒprimaryÓ relaying, and the other Òback-upÓ relaying. Primary relaying is the first line of defense, whereas back-up relaying functions only when primary relaying fails.

Protective Relaying For Power Generation Systems

Author: Donald Reimert
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351836706
Size: 64.15 MB
Format: PDF
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Power outages have considerable social and economic impacts, and effective protection schemes are crucial to avoiding them. While most textbooks focus on the transmission and distribution aspects of protective relays, Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems is the first to focus on protection of motors and generators from a power generation perspective. It also includes workbook constructions that allow students to perform protection-related calculations in Mathcad® and Excel®. This text provides both a general overview and in-depth discussion of each topic, making it easy to tailor the material to students' needs. It also covers topics not found in other texts on the subject, including detailed time decrement generator fault calculations and minimum excitation limit. The author clearly explains the potential for damage and damaging mechanisms related to each protection function and includes thorough derivations of complex system interactions. Such derivations underlie the various rule-of-thumb setting criteria, provide insight into why the rules-of-thumb work and when they are not appropriate, and are useful for post-incident analysis. The book's flexible approach combines theoretical discussions with example settings that offer quick how-to information. Protective Relaying for Power Generation Systems integrates fundamental knowledge with practical tools to ensure students have a thorough understanding of protection schemes and issues that arise during or after abnormal operation.

Power System Protective Relaying

Author: J. C. Das
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351230794
Size: 75.45 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book focuses on protective relaying, which is an indispensable part of electrical power systems. The recent advancements in protective relaying are being dictated by MMPRs (microprocessor-based multifunction relays). The text covers smart grids, integration of wind and solar generation, microgrids, and MMPRs as the driving aspects of innovations in protective relaying. Topics such as cybersecurity and instrument transformers are also explored. Many case studies and practical examples are included to emphasize real-world applications.

Digital Signal Processing In Power System Protection And Control

Author: Waldemar Rebizant
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857298027
Size: 31.57 MB
Format: PDF
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Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed by measurement algorithms of the most commonly-used protection criteria values and decision-making methods in protective relays. A large part of the book is devoted to the basic theory and applications of artificial intelligence techniques for protection and control. Fuzzy logic based schemes, artificial neural networks, expert systems and genetic algorithms with their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. AI techniques are compared and it is also shown how they can be combined to eliminate the disadvantages and magnify the useful features of particular techniques. The information provided in Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control can be useful for protection engineers working in utilities at various levels of the electricity network, as well as for students of electrical engineering, especially electrical power engineering. It may also be helpful for other readers who want to get acquainted with and to apply the filtering, measuring and decision-making algorithms for purposes other than protection and control, everywhere fast and on-line signal analysis is needed for proper functioning of the apparatus.

Numerical Differential Protection

Author: Gerhard Ziegler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3895786705
Size: 41.25 MB
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Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines. Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing. The emphasis is then placed on the different variants of differential protection and their practical application illustrated by concrete examples. This is completed by recommendations for commissioning, testing and maintenance. Finally the design and management of modern differential protection is explained by means of the latest Siemens SIPROTEC relay series. As a textbook and standard work in one, this book covers all topics, which have to be paid attention to for planning, designing, configuring and applying differential protection systems. The book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of differential protection, as well as the experienced user entering the area of numerical differential protection. Furthermore, it serves as a reference guide for solving application problems. For the new edition all contents have been revised, extended and updated to the latest state-of-the-art of protective relaying.

Pilot Protective Relaying

Author: Elmore
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351424270
Size: 75.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 5401
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This text concentrates on the fundamentals of protective relaying and aims to provide lasting information in intelligible language. It covers the relative qualities of modern transmission line systems, communications channels, three-terminal applications and program design for microprocessors, and also supplies an encyclopaedic bibliography listing professional papers useful to the relay engineer.