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Radiation Damage In Biomolecular Systems

Author: Gustavo García Gómez-Tejedor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400725647
Size: 55.38 MB
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Since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, ionizing radiations have been widely applied in medicine both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The risks associated with radiation exposure and handling led to the parallel development of the field of radiation protection. Pioneering experiments done by Sanche and co-workers in 2000 showed that low-energy secondary electrons, which are abundantly generated along radiation tracks, are primarily responsible for radiation damage through successive interactions with the molecular constituents of the medium. Apart from ionizing processes, which are usually related to radiation damage, below the ionization level low-energy electrons can induce molecular fragmentation via dissociative processes such as internal excitation and electron attachment. This prompted collaborative projects between different research groups from European countries together with other specialists from Canada, the USA and Australia. This book summarizes the advances achieved by these research groups after more than ten years of studies on radiation damage in biomolecular systems. An extensive Part I deals with recent experimental and theoretical findings on radiation induced damage at the molecular level. It includes many contributions on electron and positron collisions with biologically relevant molecules. X-ray and ion interactions are also covered. Part II addresses different approaches to radiation damage modelling. In Part III biomedical aspects of radiation effects are treated on different scales. After the physics-oriented focus of the previous parts, there is a gradual transition to biology and medicine with the increasing size of the object studied. Finally, Part IV is dedicated to current trends and novel techniques in radiation reserach and the applications hence arising. It includes new developments in radiotherapy and related cancer therapies, as well as technical optimizations of accelerators and totally new equipment designs, giving a glimpse of the near future of radiation-based medical treatments.

Research On The Physics Of Cancer

Author: Bernard S. Gerstman
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814730262
Size: 63.99 MB
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"There is something special about cancer compared to other diseases. It is a horrific disease that has defied attempts to find a reliable cure. Life spans after diagnosis have increased, but the mortality rate has remained about the same even after 40 years of extensive research. Cancer provides a major scientific challenge. Tumors evolve and spread in response to internal and external factors that involve feed-back mechanisms and non-linear behavior. In recent years, physicists have become involved in studying cancer, with the ultimate aim of finding a cure. Physicists approach a problem with unique experimental, theoretical, and computational skills and perspectives. This book will be comprised of chapters written by physicists from all over the world who perform research on cancer. They will describe their research and summarize their results."--Provided by the publisher.

Radiation Physics For Medical Physicists

Author: Ervin B. Podgorsak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319253824
Size: 33.87 MB
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This textbook summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary undergraduate physics and the intricacies of four medical physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. To recognize the importance of radiation dosimetry to medical physics three new chapters have been added to the 14 chapters of the previous edition. Chapter 15 provides a general introduction to radiation dosimetry. Chapter 16 deals with absolute radiation dosimetry systems that establish absorbed dose or some other dose related quantity directly from the signal measured by the dosimeter. Three absolute dosimetry techniques are known and described in detail: (i) calorimetric; (ii) chemical (Fricke), and (iii) ionometric. Chapter 17 deals with relative radiation dosimetry systems that rely on a previous dosimeter calibration in a known radiation field. Many relative radiation dosimetry systems have been developed to date and four most important categories used routinely in medicine and radiation protection are described in this chapter: (i) Ionometric dosimetry; (ii) Luminescence dosimetry; (iii) Semiconductor dosimetry; and (iv) Film dosimetry. The book is intended as a textbook for a radiation physics course in academic medical physics graduate programs as well as a reference book for candidates preparing for certification examinations in medical physics sub-specialties. It may also be of interest to many professionals, not only physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics or radiation physics and have a need or desire to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

Fragmentation Processes

Author: Colm T. Whelan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107007445
Size: 45.24 MB
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The first systematic treatment of fragmentation processes, ideal for graduate students and researchers in atomic collisions, laser physics and chemistry.

Biomolecular Action Of Ionizing Radiation

Author: Shirley Lehnert
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420011928
Size: 74.38 MB
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Embracing the transformation of radiation sciences by the recent surge of developments in molecular biology, this progressive text offers an up-to-date analysis of in vitro and in vivo molecular responses in the body induced by ionizing radiation. With a unique emphasis on medical physics applications, Biomolecular Action of Ionizing Radiation also presents a much needed, in-depth perspective on clinical applications for the treatment of cancer and radiation injuries. Based on a popular course given by the author at McGill University,the bookplaces the traditional tenets of radiation biology in the context of contemporary cell and molecular biology. Using terms that non-experts in molecular biology can understand, it clarifies the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects on molecular interactions including signal transduction pathways, modes of cell killing, and non-targeted effects. The author subsequently associates key principles and advances with potential applications, including the use of ionizing radiation as a cytotoxic and cytostatic agent, and radiosensitization by targeting molecular intermediates or signaling molecules involved in radiation-induced processes. Raising the standard for radiation biology texts that are currently available, Biomolecular Action of Ionizing Radiation is an outstanding resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in medical physics, radiation oncology, radiation biology, and those who have an interest in the radiation sciences and in cancer treatment.

Physics Of The Human Body

Author: Irving P. Herman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319239325
Size: 55.62 MB
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This book comprehensively addresses the physics and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the mechanical properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to clearly explain the physics issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the underlying physics. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This second edition enhances the treatments of the physics of motion, sports, and diseases and disorders, and integrates discussions of these topics as they appear throughout the book. Also, it briefly addresses physical measurements of and in the body, and offers a broader selection of problems, which, as in the first edition, are geared to a range of student levels. This text is geared to undergraduates interested in physics, medical applications of physics, quantitative physiology, medicine, and biomedical engineering.

Quantitative Understanding Of Biosystems

Author: Thomas M. Nordlund
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420089730
Size: 12.14 MB
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Quantitative Understanding of Biosystems: An Introduction to Biophysics focuses on the behavior and properties of microscopic structures that underlie living systems. It clearly describes the biological physics of macromolecules, subcellular structures, and whole cells, including interactions with light. Providing broad coverage of physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics, this color text features: Mathematical and computational tools—graphing, calculus, simple differential equations, diagrammatic analysis, and visualization tools Randomness, variation, statistical mechanics, distributions, and spectra The biological micro- and nanoworld—structures, processes, and the physical laws Quantum effects—photosynthesis, UV damage, electron and energy transfer, and spectroscopic characterization of biological structures Through its active learning approach, the text encourages practical comprehension of the behavior of biosystems, rather than knowledge of the latest research. The author includes graph- and diagram-centered physics and mathematics, simple software, frequent checks of understanding, and a repetition of important ideas at higher levels or from different points of view. After completing this book, students will gain significant computational and project experience and become competent at quantitatively characterizing biosystems. CD-ROM Resource The accompanying CD contains multimedia learning tools, such as video clips and animations, that illustrate intrinsically dynamic processes. For students inexperienced in the application of mathematics and physical principles to naturally occurring phenomena, this multimedia component emphasizes what is most obvious about biological systems: living things move. Students can also manipulate and re-program the included Excel graphs.

Strange Glow

Author: Timothy J. Jorgensen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400880521
Size: 18.97 MB
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More than ever before, radiation is a part of our modern daily lives. We own radiation-emitting phones, regularly get diagnostic x-rays, such as mammograms, and submit to full-body security scans at airports. We worry and debate about the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the safety of nuclear power plants. But how much do we really know about radiation? And what are its actual dangers? An accessible blend of narrative history and science, Strange Glow describes mankind's extraordinary, thorny relationship with radiation, including the hard-won lessons of how radiation helps and harms our health. Timothy Jorgensen explores how our knowledge of and experiences with radiation in the last century can lead us to smarter personal decisions about radiation exposures today. Jorgensen introduces key figures in the story of radiation—from Wilhelm Roentgen, the discoverer of x-rays, and pioneering radioactivity researchers Marie and Pierre Curie, to Thomas Edison and the victims of the recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Tracing the most important events in the evolution of radiation, Jorgensen explains exactly what radiation is, how it produces certain health consequences, and how we can protect ourselves from harm. He also considers a range of practical scenarios such as the risks of radon in our basements, radiation levels in the fish we eat, questions about cell-phone use, and radiation's link to cancer. Jorgensen empowers us to make informed choices while offering a clearer understanding of broader societal issues. Investigating radiation's benefits and risks, Strange Glow takes a remarkable look at how, for better or worse, radiation has transformed our society.

Ultrashort Laser Pulses In Biology And Medicine

Author: Markus Braun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540735663
Size: 78.49 MB
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Learn about the many biological and medical applications of ultrashort laser pulses. The authors highlight and explain how the briefness of these laser pulses permits the tracing of even the fastest processes in photo-active bio-systems. They also present a variety of applications that rely on the high peak intensity of ultrashort laser pulses. Easy-to-follow examples cover non-linear imaging techniques, optical tomography, and laser surgery.

Neutron Scattering In Biology

Author: Jörg Fitter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540291113
Size: 62.30 MB
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The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.