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Radiation Hazard In Space

Author: Leonty Miroshnichenko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401703019
Size: 66.56 MB
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The mono graph contains 8 chapters, and their contents cover all principal aspects of the problem: 1. Introduction and brief his tory ofthe radiation problem and background information ofradiation hazard in the near-Earth and interplanetary space. 2. General description of radiation conditions and main sources of charged partic1es in the Earth's environment and interplanetary space, effects of space environment on spacecraft. 3. Basic information about physical conditions in space and main sources of charged particles in the Earth's environment and interplanetary space, in the context of "Space W eather" monitoring and prediction. 4. Trapped radiation belts of the Earth (ERB): theory of their origin, spatial and temporal dynamics, and experimental and statistical models. 5. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR): variations of energetic, temporal and spatial characteristics, long-term modulation, and anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) component, modeling oftheir dynamics. 6. Production of energetic particles (SEPs) at/ne ar the Sun: available databases, acceleration, propagation, and prediction of individual SEP event, statistical models of solar cosmic rays (SCR). 7. Existing empirical techniques of estimating, prediction and modeling of radiation hazard, methodical approaches and constraints, some questions of changes in the Earth's radiation environment due to changes of the solar activity level. 8. Unresolved problems of radiation hazard prediction and spacecraft protection, radiation experiments on board the spacecraft, estimating of radiation conditions during interplanetary missions. Space does not allow us to explain every time the solar-terrestrial and radiation physics nomencIature used in current English-language literature.

Stellar Astrophysics

Author: Ka Lok Cheng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401704031
Size: 55.48 MB
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The Pacific Rim Conferences for the first decade from the mid 1980's to the mid 1990's were primary concerned with binary stars research. The Conference expanded to all areas of Stellar Astrophysics for the last two meetings in Hong Kong; at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 1997 and at the Hong Kong University in 1999. At the conclusion of the very successful Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics held in Hong Kong University, members of the Sci entific Organizing Committee began planning for the next conference. We approached Professor Tan Lu of Nanjing University and Professor Tipei Li of the Institute of High Energy Physics about hosting a con ference in China. The city of Xi'an in Shaanxi province and a city in Yunnan province, were considered to be the most likely locations. It be came crucial to find the right person to serve as Chair (or Co-chairs) for the Local Organizing Committee. Initially, Professor Lu was the logical choice but he declined for personal reasons. Professor Li was invited to lead a new department of Astrophysics at Tsinghua University so he could not take on the additional load of chairing the LOC. Professor Gang Zhao of Beijing Astronomical Observatory was approached to take on the task but he also declined. This has been a busy time for Chinese astronomers. The SOC decided to have the conference dedicated to honor Dr. Helmut A.

Stellar Astrophysics

Author: Ka Lok Cheng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402016837
Size: 59.85 MB
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The Pacific Rim Conferences for the first decade from the mid 1980's to the mid 1990's were primary concerned with binary stars research. The Conference expanded to all areas of Stellar Astrophysics for the last two meetings in Hong Kong; at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology in 1997 and at the Hong Kong University in 1999. At the conclusion of the very successful Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics held in Hong Kong University, members of the Sci entific Organizing Committee began planning for the next conference. We approached Professor Tan Lu of Nanjing University and Professor Tipei Li of the Institute of High Energy Physics about hosting a con ference in China. The city of Xi'an in Shaanxi province and a city in Yunnan province, were considered to be the most likely locations. It be came crucial to find the right person to serve as Chair (or Co-chairs) for the Local Organizing Committee. Initially, Professor Lu was the logical choice but he declined for personal reasons. Professor Li was invited to lead a new department of Astrophysics at Tsinghua University so he could not take on the additional load of chairing the LOC. Professor Gang Zhao of Beijing Astronomical Observatory was approached to take on the task but he also declined. This has been a busy time for Chinese astronomers. The SOC decided to have the conference dedicated to honor Dr. Helmut A.

Solar And Space Weather Radiophysics

Author: D.E. Gary
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402028148
Size: 16.99 MB
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This volume is the outgrowth of several international meetings to discuss a vision for the future of solar radio physics: the development of a new radio instrument. From these discussions, the concept for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) was born. Most of the chapters of this book are based oninvitedtalksattheFASRScienceWorkshop,heldinGreenbank,WVinMay 2002, and a special session on Solar and Space Weather Radiophysics held at the 200th American Astronomical Society meeting held in Albuquerque, NM in June 2002. Although many of the chapters deal with topics of interest in planning for FASR, other topics in Solar and Space Weather Radiophysics, such as solar radar and interplanetary scintillation, are covered to round out the discipline. The authors have been asked to write with a tutorial approach, to make the book useful to graduate students and scientists new to radio physics. This book is more than a compilation of FASR science topics. The FASR instrument concept is so revolutionary—by extending capability by an order of magnitude in several dimensions at once (frequency coverage, spatial reso- tion,dynamicrange,timeresolution,polarizationprecision)—thatitchallenges scientiststothinkinnewways. Theauthorsofthefollowingchaptershavebeen taskednotonlywithreviewingthecurrentstateofthe?eld,butalsowithlooking to the future and imagining what is possible. Radio emission is extremely complex because it is generated so readily, and every imaginable plasma parameter affects it. This is both its great strength and its weakness.

Solar Cosmic Rays

Author: Leonty Miroshnichenko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401596468
Size: 28.76 MB
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It turned out to be really a rare and happy occasion that we know exact1y when and how a new branch of space physics was born, namely, a physics of solar cosmic rays. It happened on February 28 and March 7, 1942 when the fIrst "cosmic ray bursts" were recorded on the Earth, and the Sun was unambiguously identifIed for the fIrst time as the source of high-velocity 10 particles with energies up to > 10 eV. Just due to such a high energy these relativistic particles have been called "solar cosmic rays" (SCR), in distinction from the "true" cosmic rays of galactic origin. Between 1942 and the beginning ofthe space era in 1957 only extremely high energy solar particle events could be occasionally recorded by cosmic ray ground-Ievel detectors and balloon borne sensors. Since then the detection techniques varied considerably and the study of SCR turned into essential part of solar and solar-terrestrial physics.

Nonequilibrium Phenomena In Plasmas

Author: A. Surjalal Sharma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402031083
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This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

The Multinational History Of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

Author: Andre HECK
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402036439
Size: 60.59 MB
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Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed within its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. Several appendices conclude the book: lists of council members and of Observatory scientific personnel, as well as a compendium of the institutional publications until the year 2000.

Managing Space Radiation Risk In The New Era Of Space Exploration

Author: Committee on the Evaluation of Radiation Shielding for Space Exploration
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309113830
Size: 69.83 MB
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As part of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), NASA is planning for humans to revisit the Moon and someday go to Mars. An important consideration in this effort is protection against the exposure to space radiation. That radiation might result in severe long-term health consequences for astronauts on such missions if they are not adequately shielded. To help with these concerns, NASA asked the NRC to further the understanding of the risks of space radiation, to evaluate radiation shielding requirements, and recommend a strategic plan for developing appropriate mitigation capabilities. This book presents an assessment of current knowledge of the radiation environment; an examination of the effects of radiation on biological systems and mission equipment; an analysis of current plans for radiation protection; and a strategy for mitigating the risks to VSE astronauts.