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Radioactive Fallout After Nuclear Explosions And Accidents

Author: Y.A. Izrael
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080540238
Size: 76.32 MB
Format: PDF
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To achieve successful solutions to the problems resulting from local, distant and global radioactive fallout after nuclear explosions and accidents and to achieve successful retrospective analyses of the radiation conditions from recent observations, certain information is needed: the distribution of the exposure dose rate in the atmosphere and in a country; the distribution of radionuclides in natural environments and the nuclide composition of the radioactive fallout; the features of formation of the aerosol particle-carriers of the radioactivity and of the nuclide distribution of the particles of different sizes formed under different conditions; the processes involved in the migration of radioactive products in different zones and environments; the external and internal effects of nuclear radiation on human beings. This monograph is devoted to a number of these problems, namely, to studies of the radioactive fallout composition, the formation of the aerosol particles that transport the radioactive products and to the analysis of the external radiation doses resulting from nuclear explosions and/or accidents. Problems of restoration and rehabilitation of contaminated land areas are also touched upon in the monograph. To solve such problems one requires knowledge of the mobility of radionuclides, an understanding of their uptake by plants, their transportation within the food chain and finally their uptake by animal and/or human organisms. The results of many years of study of radioactive fallout from atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions and accidents are summarized in this book. It is intended for various specialists - geophysicists, ecologists, health experts and inspectors, as well as those who are concerned with radioactive contamination of natural environments.

Radioaktive Umwandlungen

Author: Ernest Rutherford
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3845725990
Size: 52.41 MB
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Der Atomphysiker Ernest Rutherford, der für seine Forschungen im Bereich der Radioaktivität 1908 mit dem Nobelpreis für Chemie ausgezeichnet wurde und als „Vater der Kernphysik“ gilt, erläutert im vorliegenden Band die Prozesse der Transformationen der radioaktiven Elemente. Auf Basis einer Vorlesungsreihe, die er 1905 an der Yale University hielt, führt Rutherford den Leser in seine Erkenntnisse ein. Sorgfältig nachbearbeiteter Nachdruck der deutschsprachigen Ausgabe aus dem Jahr 1907.

Social And Ethical Aspects Of Radiation Risk Management

Author: Deborah Oughton
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080914292
Size: 51.77 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management provides a comprehensive treatment of the major ethical and social issues resulting from the use of ionizing radiation. It covers topics such as nuclear fuel cycles, radioactive waste treatment, nuclear bomb testing, nuclear safety management, stakeholder engagement, cleanup after nuclear accidents, ecological risks from radiation, environmental justice, health and safety for radiation workers, radiation dose standards, the ethics of clinical radiology, and the principles of radiation protection and their ethical underpinnings. With authors ranging from philosophers to radiation protection officials and practitioners, the book spans from theoretical to practical implications of this important area of radiation risk assessment and management. Covers all the major social and ethical issues in relation to radiation protection Information is easily accessible and non-technical Authors include leading radiation protection officials as well as specialists who are more independent of the radiation protection system, thus presenting both authoritative and more critical views Includes theoretical perspectives as well as practical experience

Remediation Of Contaminated Environments

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080914152
Size: 39.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Remediation of Contaminated Environments summarises - amongst other things - what happened to the people and environment around Chernobyl (and other nuclear sites) and what measures need to be taken in future in the event of nuclear accidents etc. plus it has a very important and currently topical use in detailing what to do in the event of a terrorist dirty bomb attack on a city. Remediation, including characterization of contaminated sites; safety requirements; remediation planning; effectiveness of individual measures in different environments; social, ethical and economic considerations; application of modern decision aiding technologies Applicable to different categories of contaminated environments and contaminants, comprising areas contaminated by radiation accidents and incidents, nuclear weapon tests, natural radionuclides associated with nuclear fuel cycle, fossil material mining and gas and oil production Associated side effects (environmental and social) and human based remediation measures, comprising perception of this activity by the population; with particular regard to stakeholders and population involvement in making decisions on environmental safety and remediation of contaminated sites

Low Level Environmental Radioactivity

Author: Richard Tykva
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781566761895
Size: 28.81 MB
Format: PDF
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From the Introduction Low-level radioactivity is related to those radioactive sources of ionizing radiation that are characterized by low activities. Sometimes activity here does not represent total amount of radionuclides but rather their concentration. In other cases, the total activity may be quite high, but we can measure only a relatively small portion of the material. "Low" may have, for different situations and circumstances, not only considerably different meanings but also different absolute values as far as the activity or activity concentration is concerned. For example, one can refer to low activity in the case of radiocarbon dating, where the concentration of 14C is actually lower than its natural concentration, and also in the case of radon monitoring where, especially in mines or in some enclosed spaces, its concentration may be several thousand times higher than the outdoor "atural" concentrations. Emphasis is now being placed on the analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment or on the release of radionuclides from their different man-made sources because liquid and aerial discharge level controls have become more rigorous. In addition, the applicability of low-level methodology increases the extent of different radionuclide applications considerably. Since individual radionuclides differ in their decay scheme and particles emitted as well in their energies, there is no universal method for the accurate measurement of all radioactive sources. Moreover, there is usually a mixture of radionuclides in a sample, causing some difficulties in a selective evaluation of a given radionuclide. Due to the random nature of radioactive disintegrations, the appropriate interpretation of the experimental results would be, in most cases, impossible without elaborate statistical treatment and evaluation of the data obtained. Thanks to the availability of computer-based instrumentation, the measuring data can be, in most cases, processed and evaluated on-line, which makes it possible to control and optimize the experiment in order to extract the maximum amount of information carried by the detector response. The purpose of this book is to provide an introduction to low-level radioactivity assessment and to clarify the nature of its sources, as well as the principal methods used in its measurement. Our evaluation is concentrated on the present-day aspects of low-level methodology. The book may be useful for all who need highly sensitive analysis of natural or artificial radioactivity both within and outside the nuclear field. The attempt of this book is to summarize the sources of environmental radioactivity and their possible radiological impact in terms of resulting doses to the population, and to present a sound review of the measuring methods and techniques for the evaluation of low-level radioactivities encountered in both the environment and in a number of applications where radioactive sources are used as a means of obtaining important information.

Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

Author: Charles S. Shapiro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 366203610X
Size: 71.44 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Radionuclides produced by past nuclear weapon test explosions comprise the largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity released into the earth's atmosphere to date. This volume presents data and models about the fate of the released radionuclides and their possible effects on human health. It is divided into the following three parts: - Source Term Studies; - Dose Reconstruction; - Ecological and Health Effects, and comprises both Western and formerly secret Soviet research studies, illuminates past and current research.

Nuclear Disasters The Built Environment

Author: Philip Steadman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483106225
Size: 28.90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Nuclear Disasters & the Built Environment discusses the effects of nuclear disasters on the built environment. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that are organized into three parts. Part I provides an introductory discourse and covers nuclear reactions and radiation. Part II discusses nuclear reactor accidents; this part tackles several concerns such as nuclear safety and risk; contamination of urban areas; and emergency planning. Part III deals with topics concerning nuclear war, such as nuclear weapons, damages, and consequences. The text will be of great interest to readers concerned with the implication of the use of nuclear technology.

Kernenergie

Author: Julia Neles
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642243290
Size: 20.48 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Knapp und klar arbeitet der Autor die Grundlagen zum Verständnis der Kernenergie heraus und ermöglicht Lesern damit einen leichten Einstieg ins Thema. Dabei vermittelt er nicht nur die technisch-wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen in allgemein verständlicher und umfassender Weise, sondern befasst sich auch mit den gesellschaftspolitischen Fragen der Sicherheit, der Entsorgung und der nuklearen Abrüstung. Der Band bietet die Möglichkeit, die aktuellen Entwicklungen nach der Reaktorkatastrophe in Fukushima einzuordnen und zu reflektieren.

Command And Control

Author: Eric Schlosser
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406655963
Size: 18.29 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Arkansas, 18. September 1980, abends: Bei Routinearbeiten an einer gefechtsbereiten Titan-II-Rakete rutscht einem Arbeiter ein Schraubenschlüssel aus der Hand. »O Mann, das ist nicht gut”, ist sein erster Gedanke. Das Missgeschick führt zu einer Kettenreaktion, der größte je gebaute Atomsprengkopf droht zu explodieren ... Weltweit sind Tausende von Atomsprengköpfen stationiert. Viele von ihnen werden rund um die Uhr gefechtsbereit gehalten, damit sie innerhalb einer Minute starten und eine unvorstellbare Verwüstung anrichten können. Was das für die Soldaten in den unterirdischen Bunkern heißt und welche Gefahren von den scharfen Atomwaffen ausgehen, ist uns kaum bewusst. Der Journalist und Bestseller-Autor Eric Schlosser deckt in diesem zeithistorischen Thriller auf der Grundlage von geheimen Unterlagen des Verteidigungsministeriums und Interviews mit Augenzeugen einen dramatischen Unfall in einem Atomwaffensilo der USA auf, der um ein Haar mehrere amerikanische Großstädte vernichtet hätte. In diesen Krimi einer am Ende gerade noch gelungenen Rettung flicht er die Geschichte der amerikanischen Atomrüstung ein. Er erzählt, wie Raketen und Sprengköpfe rund um die Uhr abschussbereit gehalten werden und wie die Menschen ticken, die ihr Leben für die Sicherheit der Massenvernichtungswaffen einsetzen. Eine spektakuläre Geschichte des Kalten Krieges und der Atomrüstung «von unten»: aus der Sicht der Soldaten in den Silos, die mit einem falschen Handgriff die Apokalypse auslösen können. «Atemberaubend, ... mitreißend ... Eric Schlosser verbindet profunde Informationen mit der Erzählung haarsträubender Details zu zahlreichen Unfällen und zeigt, dass auch die besten Kontrollsysteme nicht menschlichen Fehlern, Missgeschicken und der wachsenden technologischen Komplexität gewachsen sind.» Publisher’s Weekly »Ebenso anschaulich wie erschütternd ... Eine umfassende und beunruhigende Untersuchung über die Illusion der Sicherheit von Atomwaffen.” Kirkus Reviews «Die weltweiten Atwomwaffenarsenale sind nicht so sicher, wie sie sein sollten – das ist die Botschaft dieses faszinierenden und aufwühlenden Buches.» Lee H. Hamilton, ehemaliger Kongress-Abgeordneter der USA und Co-Vorsitzender der Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future