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Environmental Security And Ecoterrorism

Author: Hami Alpas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400712375
Size: 55.69 MB
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In recent years, the concept of environmental security has been adapted to include preparedness for acts of ecoterrorism. This latter term has now become synonymous with environmental terrorism where the perpetrator uses the environment as a weapon to harm an opponent. The intended outcome is usually large-scale deaths, severe damage to the environment, and instilling fear in the general population. This book explores various facets of ecoterrorism including the role of the state in pursuing and maintaining environmental security, a review of the concept of ecoterrorism, food security challenges and weaknesses, technological countermeasures to enable rapid detection or response, and existing pollution sources and hazards that may serve as targets for terrorist acts. In sum, this volume provides a useful overview for both the layperson and experienced researchers.

Radiobiology And Environmental Security

Author: Carmel E Mothersill
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940071999X
Size: 14.45 MB
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This volume – like the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on which it is based – addresses the fundamental science that contributes to our understanding of the potential risks from ecological terrorism, i.e. dirty bombs, atomic explosions, intentional release of radionuclides into water or air. Both effects on human health (DNA and systemic effects) and on ecosystems are detailed, with particular focus on environmentally relevant low-dose ranges. The state-of-the-art contributions to the book are authored by leading experts; they tackle the relevant questions from the perspectives of radiation genetics, radiobiology, radioecology, radiation epidemiology and risk assessment.

Radiation Detectors For Medical Applications

Author: Stefaan Tavernier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402050933
Size: 18.23 MB
Format: PDF
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The topic of this book is the use of scintillating materials in the detection of ionising radiation for medical imaging. The text surveys the state of the art in radiation detectors for medical imaging, followed by an in-depth review of all aspects of the use of scintillating materials. Also included are detailed discussion of ways to improve the performance of existing scintillating materials and completely novel uses of scintillating materials.

Advanced Bioactive Compounds Countering The Effects Of Radiological Chemical And Biological Agents

Author: Grant N. Pierce
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400765134
Size: 49.96 MB
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The probability for exposure to damaging radiation, toxic chemicals in the environment and adverse biological agents has increased exponentially today. The more frequent and faster travel that we experience today also escalates the risk of contraction and transmission of potentially deadly infections. This has created a very real and escalating risk for injuries and deaths. This is accentuated in the military and medical staff that is more frequently exposed to radiological, chemical, and biological agents in their normal working environment. Understanding the mechanisms whereby these toxic agents inflict damage to our bodies is essential to prepare us for these challenges. Much of the damage is inflicted through the generation of free radicals and non-radical oxidants which then act through oxidative mechanisms to injury the body. This volume will discuss the damage caused by these radiological, chemical, and biological environmental stressors, the mechanisms through which the damage can occur and the novel strategies that can be used to reduce the injury inflicted by these toxic compounds. Using basic and clinical research approaches, the contents of this book discuss new ideas for the development of bioactive products and environmental approaches to lessen or negate the biological damage inflicted by these noxious compounds.

Radiation Protection In Medical Physics

Author: Yves Lemoigne
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400702477
Size: 24.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.

The Environmental Challenges Of Nuclear Disarmament

Author: Thomas E. Baca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401141045
Size: 23.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The end of the Cold War marked the beginning of a new era of facing the legacy of the arms race. The enormous challenge confronting us now is to strengthen the fragile nature of the new political balance. The beginning of this new historical period is characterized by mistrust, and the best way to ease these tensions is through international collaborations. Moreover, the intimate nature of close, non-invasive, collaborative work on environmental problems can help establish a secure foundation of mutual understanding and trust. Environmental projects are non-threatening to national security issues and may involve collaborations throughout the international weapons complex. Personal and individual scientific relationships quite often spearhead agreements at the government-to-government level. Environmental and nonproliferation issues are of great importance to the citizens of Russia, to the states of the Former Soviet Union, and to neighboring countries. The activities associated with decontamination and decommissioning of old facilities, environmental restoration, security enhancements, monitoring and surveillance, and risk reduction should provide a significant employment potential for scientists and engineers of the weapons complex of the Former Soviet Union.

Biodefence

Author: Sergey Mikhalovsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400702191
Size: 73.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book focuses on defence against biological warfare with an emphasis on applications of modern technologies and advanced materials in detection, health protection and medical treatment of the population. Specific topics include high-throughput sensitive detection methods, advanced nanostructured materials and techniques for external and internal protection of human health, as well as extracorporeal methods, adsorptive materials and bacteriophages decontaminating the human organism, and neutralising incorporated CBRN agents. The contributions describe recent developments in the field of biodefence aimed at protecting population against terrorism and terror related events. Broader approaches to reducing the impact of environmental pollution on human health and improving efficiency of medical treatment of patients with viral infections, poisoning and organ failure are also discussed.

Nanomaterials

Author: Charles Lutz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402094914
Size: 14.58 MB
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Many potential questions regarding the risks associated with the development and use of wide-ranging technologies enabled through engineered nanomaterials. For example, with over 600 consumer products available globally, what information exists that describes their risk to human health and the environment? What en- neering or use controls can be deployed to minimize the potential environmental health and safety impacts of nanomaterials throughout the manufacturing and product lifecycles? How can the potential environmental and health benefits of nanotechnology be realized and maximized? The idea for this book was conceived at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on “Nanomaterials: Environmental Risks and Benefits and Emerging Consumer Products. ” This meeting – held in Algarve, Portugal, in April 2008 – started with building a foundation to harmonize risks and benefits associated with nanomaterials to develop risk management approaches and policies. More than 70 experts, from 19 countries, in the fields of risk assessment, decision-analysis, and security discussed the current state-of-knowledge with regard to nanomaterial risk and benefits. The discussion focused on the adequacy of available risk assessment tools to guide nanomaterial applications in industry and risk governance. The workshop had five primary purposes: Describe the potential benefits of nanotechnology enabled commercial products. Identify and describe what is known about environmental and human health risks of nanomaterials and approaches to assess their safety. Assess the suitability of multicriteria decision analysis for reconciling the benefits and risks of nanotechnology.

Towards The Monitoring Of Dumped Munitions Threat Modum

Author: Jacek Bełdowski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402411534
Size: 34.35 MB
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This book describes the creation of a monitoring network, which can provide information about the exact locations and the environmental threats posed by chemical weapons (CW) dumpsites in the Baltic Sea region, using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs), and utilising the existing research vessels of NATO partner institutions as launching platforms. The dumping operations occurred shortly after World War II and included captured German munitions. Operations with munitions from the Soviet occupation zone were performed by the Soviet Navy, operations with munitions from British and American occupation zones were performed in areas outside of the Baltic Sea (Skagerrak Strait); the fate of munitions from the French occupation zone was never reported. Due to difficult legal status of these munitions, and high costs of remediation and retrieval, removal of these weapons from the bottom of the Baltic Sea seems unlikely in the foreseeable future. These dumped chemical weapons pose an actual environmental and security hazard in the Baltic Sea Region. Nowadays, with more and more industrial activities being performed in the Baltic Sea Area, the threat level is rising. The AUV survey is based on the IVER2 platform by OceanServer, equipped with Klein 3500 side-scan sonar. The identification phase utilises several ROVs, equipped with targeting sonars, acoustic cameras capable of penetrating turbid bottom waters up to 20m, and visual HD cameras. A novel sediment sampling system, based on a camera and sonar equipped cassette sampler, has been developed to obtain surface sediments. The test phase described consists of a survey phase, which will locate the actual objects concerned, and a monitoring phase, which will concentrate on the collection of environmental data close to the objects concerned.