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Radioisotope Power Systems

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309141765
Size: 13.33 MB
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Spacecraft require electrical energy. This energy must be available in the outer reaches of the solar system where sunlight is very faint. It must be available through lunar nights that last for 14 days, through long periods of dark and cold at the higher latitudes on Mars, and in high-radiation fields such as those around Jupiter. Radioisotope power systems (RPSs) are the only available power source that can operate unconstrained in these environments for the long periods of time needed to accomplish many missions, and plutonium-238 (238Pu) is the only practical isotope for fueling them. Plutonium-238 does not occur in nature. The committee does not believe that there is any additional 238Pu (or any operational 238Pu production facilities) available anywhere in the world.The total amount of 238Pu available for NASA is fixed, and essentially all of it is already dedicated to support several pending missions--the Mars Science Laboratory, Discovery 12, the Outer Planets Flagship 1 (OPF 1), and (perhaps) a small number of additional missions with a very small demand for 238Pu. If the status quo persists, the United States will not be able to provide RPSs for any subsequent missions.

Space Studies Board Annual Report 2010

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309217857
Size: 23.40 MB
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The Space Studies Board (SSB) was established in 1958 to serve as the focus of the interests and responsibilities in space research for the National Academies. The SSB provides an independent, authoritative forum for information and advice on all aspects of space science and applications, and it serves as the focal point within the National Academies for activities on space research. It oversees advisory studies and program assessments, facilitates international research coordination, and promotes communications on space science and science policy between the research community, the federal government, and the interested public. The SSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee for the International Council for Science Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). This volume reviews the organization, activities, and reports of the SSB for the year 2010.

Life And Physical Sciences Research For A New Era Of Space Exploration

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309157129
Size: 41.39 MB
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In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as we become a spacefaring people. The project's statement of task calls for delivery of two books--an interim report and a final survey report. Although the development of specific recommendations is deferred until the final book, this interim report does attempt to identify programmatic needs and issues to guide near-term decisions that are critical to strengthening the organization and management of life and physical sciences research at NASA.

An Enabling Foundation For Nasa S Earth And Space Science Missions

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309148235
Size: 59.16 MB
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NASA's space and Earth science program is composed of two principal components: spaceflight projects and mission-enabling activities. Most of the budget of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is applied to spaceflight missions, but NASA identifies nearly one quarter of the SMD budget as "mission enabling." The principal mission-enabling activities, which traditionally encompass much of NASA's research and analysis (R&A) programs, include support for basic research, theory, modeling, and data analysis; suborbital payloads and flights and complementary ground-based programs; advanced technology development; and advanced mission and instrumentation concept studies. While the R&A program is essential to the development and support of NASA's diverse set of space and Earth science missions, defining and articulating an appropriate scale for mission-enabling activities have posed a challenge throughout NASA's history. This volume identifies the appropriate roles for mission-enabling activities and metrics for assessing their effectiveness. Furthermore, the book evaluates how, from a strategic perspective, decisions should be made about balance between mission-related and mission-enabling elements of the overall program as well as balance between various elements within the mission-enabling component. Collectively, these efforts will help SMD to make a good program even better.

Near Earth Object Surveys And Hazard Mitigation Strategies

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309149402
Size: 49.31 MB
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The United States is currently the only country with an active, government-sponsored effort to detect and track potentially hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs). Congress has mandated that NASA detect and track 90 percent of NEOs that are 1 kilometer in diameter or larger. These objects represent a great potential hazard to life on Earth and could cause global destruction. NASA is close to accomplishing this goal. Congress has more recently mandated that by 2020 NASA should detect and track 90 percent of NEOs that are 140 meters in diameter or larger, a category of objects that is generally recognized to represent a very significant threat to life on Earth if they strike in or near urban areas. Achieving this goal may require the building of one or more additional observatories, possibly including a space-based observatory. Congress directed NASA to ask the National Research Council to review NASA's near-Earth object programs. This interim report addresses some of the issues associated with the survey and detection of NEOs. The final report will contain findings and recommendations for survey and detection, characterization, and mitigation of near-Earth objects based on an integrated assessment of the problem.

Und Einstein Hatte Doch Recht

Author: Clifford M. Will
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642743145
Size: 17.38 MB
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Keine wissenschaftliche Theorie ist auf solche Faszination auch außerhalb der Wissenschaft gestoßen wie die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie von Albert Einstein, und keine wurde so nachdrücklich mit den Mitteln der modernen Physik überprüft. Wie hat sie diesen Test mit Raumsonden, Radioastronomie, Atomuhren und Supercomputern standgehalten? Hatte Einstein recht? Mit der Autorität des Fachmanns und dem Flair des unvoreingenommenen Erzählers schildert Clifford Will die Menschen, Ideen und Maschinen hinter den Tests der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Ohne Formeln und Fachjargon wird der leser mit Einsteins Gedanken vertraut und erfährt von der Bestätigung seiner Vorhersagen, angefangen bei der Lichtablenkung im Schwerefeld der Sonne 1919 bis zu den ausgefeilten Kreiselexperimenten auf dem Space Shuttle. Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie hat nich nur alle diese Tests bestanden, sie hat darüber hinaus wesentlich beigetragen zu unserem Verständnis von Phänomenen wie Pulsaren, Quasaren, Schwarzen Löchern und Gravitationslinsen. Dieses Buch erzählt lebendig und spannend die Geschichte einer der größten geistigen Leistungen unserer Zeit.

Nuclear Power In Space

Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 74.63 MB
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Die Rakete Zu Den Planetenr Umen

Author: Hermann Oberth
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3486747126
Size: 18.37 MB
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Hermann Oberth gilt als einer der bedeutendsten Pioniere der Raketentechnik. Visionär waren nicht nur seine umfassende, akribische Untersuchung und Optimierung aller denkbaren Raketenparamter, sondern auch seine Vorschläge zur Raketeninstrumentierung für bemannte und wissenschaftliche Missionen sowie Ideen für Start- und Testanlagen. Die Neuauflage ermöglicht es, die Realisierung von Oberth's "Traum" nachzuvollziehen und mit der heutigen Raumfahrtrealität abzugleichen. Reprint der 5. Auflage von 1984