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Raising Standards In Literacy

Author: Greg Brooks
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113450361X
Size: 13.16 MB
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Raising Standards in Literacy represents the best current thinking and research about literacy. The book is the outcome of a high-profile series of seminars on raising standards in literacy, and includes contributions from an impressive group of international researchers and policymakers. By offering a rich and unique mix of contemporary perspectives on literacy education, this book provides an invaluable source of study and insight into the latest research and developments in the teaching of literacy. It includes sections on: * how research into literacy teaching can inform new approaches found in England, the USA and Australia * the ways in which literacy education is developing in England, the USA and Australia * the issues involved in assessing progress in literacy and the validity of research claims made about standards of attainment. The book celebrates the apparent success of current literacy initiatives at the same time as raising questions about the feasibility and relevance of such initiatives to the literacy co-ordinators and consultants and for all those undertaking further study or research in literacy education.

Boys And Literacy

Author: Trisha Maynard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134558562
Size: 38.69 MB
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In recent years the issue of boys and literacy, namely that they are worse at it compared to girls, has become a key area of interest to all those concerned with the education of our children. This book highlights the key factors causing this divide and discusses the implementation of new strategies to overcome it, which have been the result of extensive qualitative research made by the author. Trisha Maynard reports case study findings of a primary school whose staff wanted to explore and improve boys' attitudes towards and attainment in literacy, and in particular their difficulties with writing. The book highlights issues concerning the reading and writing of stories, what teachers understand by 'good story writing' and the importance of teachers exploring boys' and girls' difficulties with literacy by themselves. It provides significant insight into boys' difficulties with writing as well as informing teachers how to find out about children's attainment.

The National Literacy Strategy Grammar For Writing Raising Standards 2000

Author: Department for Education and Employment - Macmillan Press
Publisher: Bukupedia
Size: 26.66 MB
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This book has a two-fold purpose: ● to provide lively whole class activities for teaching the Key Stage 2 sentence level objectives in the National Literacy Strategy Framework for teaching; ● to explain and illustrate the varied forms which shared writing can take as a powerful medium for teaching writing. Introduction and rationale We all use language to think and communicate. Language is systematically organised by its grammar which is inextricably linked to meaning and communication – we cannot make sense without shaping grammatical and linguistic structures. All pupils have extensive grammatical knowledge. Much of this is implicit, but they are able to generalise and improvise from this knowledge. Teaching which focuses on grammar helps to make this knowledge explicit, extend children’s range and develop more confident and versatile language use. This guidance is designed to help teachers teach writing. It focuses on the teaching of the sentence level objectives in the National Literacy Strategy Framework for teaching.We have called it ‘Grammar for writing’ to emphasise the centrality of grammar in the teaching of writing. In the video accompanying Module 3 of the NLS 1998 training materials, Professor David Crystal explains the importance of grammar: ‘Grammar is what gives sense to language … Sentences make words yield up their meanings. Sentences actively create sense in language and the business of the study of sentences is the study of grammar.’ Some would argue that the study of grammar is worth teaching in its own right because it is intrinsically interesting – and so it is. This is not the primary aim here; our aim is to improve children’s writing. Grammar is fundamental to this, as a means to an end, but a means which involves investigation, problem-solving, language play and a growing awareness of and interest in how language works. This book focuses on the teaching of sentence level objectives in the Literacy Hour but, throughout, the emphasis is on how children’s growing understanding and use of grammar helps them to write more effectively. It should be clear from this that the purpose of teaching grammar is not simply the naming of parts of speech, nor is it to provide arbitrary rules for ‘correct’ English. It is about making children aware of key grammatical principles and their effects, to increase the range of choices open to them when they write. Children learn grammar as an integral part of learning to speak from the earliest stages. The development of oral language is vitally important in its own right as well as being essential to success in literacy. In the course of development, children will use grammar in a wide variety of ways, often with considerable complexity. Very young children will imply meanings using single Introduction and rationale 7 words in a variety of grammatical ways. For example, a one-year-old saying ‘Milk’ could mean: Look! There’s some milk; Can I have more milk?; Is that one milk? etc., showing what they mean by tone of voice and/or gesture. Older children often use very complex grammatical constructions in speech which may not be appropriate as written forms. Children frequently encounter very sophisticated grammar in the speech and writing of others which they understand without difficulty. The National Literacy Strategy sentence level teaching objectives are not intended to provide developmental descriptions of this kind. They focus on a limited but important range of skills that children need for writing. They are about extending and making explicit aspects of children’s intuitive knowledge of grammar, focusing on aspects of grammar which tend to distinguish written from spoken texts. The grammatical characteristics of spoken language are different in significant ways from those of written language. These differences are related to the permanence of the written form, and the need to be concise and explicit, and because often the intended reader is separated from the writer by time and space. Whereas speakers often rely on context, facial expression, intonation, pauses, etc. to convey meaning and create effect, writers often use more explicit grammatical structures as well as other organisational features, such as paragraphs, headings and sometimes diagrams, to communicate ideas. The following two texts illustrate some of the differences: A Today we learnt about taste and Miss Ward put some things out on the table and we had to taste them and what we had to do is they all had numbers by them and we had to taste them and it had a different taste to them and we had to taste them and see if it was sweet, salt, and bitter and sour and I did not taste any sour. B Taste experiment We had to taste foods which had different numbers to see if they tasted sweet, salt, bitter or sour. I thought the best taste was cheese and the worst was pickle. I did not find anything sour. In these two examples, the intentions are similar: to explain the experiment. Text A recounts the events but backtracks and repeats. When written down, these repetitions stand out but, when spoken, they make sense. The speaker joins all the thoughts together with ‘and’ and uses intonation, gesture and stress to keep the listener on track. Text B is more clearly a written recount. It contains far fewer clauses than A and joins them in more complex ways, ie by subordination rather than the continuous use of the conjunction ‘and’. The effect is a more focused and free-standing account which can be read by any reader. The growth of competence in writing also contributes importantly to the broader development of children’s thinking. The more context-free and explicit nature of writing helps children become increasingly reflective about language. By structuring and restructuring ideas in writing, children extend their powers of imagination, learn to express increasingly complex, abstract and logical relationships, develop skills of reasoning and critical evaluation. This, in turn, feeds back into their competence as thinkers and speakers. Introduction and rationale It is instructive to look at the key messages about children’s writing from the national tests derived from analysis of a sample of scripts. These give a very clear indication of the writing skills that children need to succeed in as they move through to their secondary education (Standards at Key Stage 2 English, Mathematics and Science. Report on the 1999 National Curriculum Assessments for 11-year-olds, QCA, 2000). Key messages about writing from the National Curriculum tests To reach a secure level 2A by the end of Key Stage 1, children should be able to: ● write with legible and accurate handwriting; ● discriminate and spell phonemes accurately – especially long vowels; ● understand spellings of simple word roots and inflectional endings: ‘ed’, ‘ing’, etc.; ● write and punctuate simple sentences; ● sequence them coherently in a text; ● select from an increasing range of vocabulary to enhance meaning, create effects and add precision to their writing. To reach a secure level 4 by the end of Key Stage 2, children should be able to: ● apply spelling rules and conventions, eg consonant doubling, pluralisation, affixes; ● apply strategies to choose correct vowel formation; ● modify the meanings of words by adding words or phrases for effect and precision; ● develop more varied and complex sentences; ● use commas to mark clauses in complex sentences; ● pay more attention to the ending and thus the direction of the narrative; ● use formal, impersonal styles, eg consistent use of third person or the passive voice; ● review and edit work for clarity and interest, organisation and purpose; ● connect ideas at both text and sentence levels; ● organise texts in other ways than by order of event; ● adapt their writing to the purposes and characteristics of non-fiction text types. Some of these expectations refer to phonics and spelling which are addressed in other guidance (National Literacy Strategy, Progression in Phonics and Spelling Bank, DfEE, 1999). Nevertheless, it is striking how many of them are directly or indirectly about grammar – about children’s ability to manipulate words in sentences and to link sentences together. Some are specifically grammatical, eg the ability to form and punctuate simple sentences at Key Stage 1 or to develop more complex sentences at Key Stage 2. Others, like the use of formal styles, the purposes and characteristics of non-fiction text types and the direction of narrative also depend on the writer’s awareness and control of grammar. Across the primary years, there are three key features of grammar which need to be addressed. All of these are covered in the National Literacy Strategy Framework for teaching. They are particularly important because they mark key differences between the ways in which grammar is used in spoken and written English. Introduction and rationale

Bibliographic Guide To Education

Author: GK Hall
Publisher: G K Hall
ISBN: 9780783805016
Size: 49.31 MB
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The "Bibliographic Guide to Education" lists recent publications cataloged during the past year by Teachers College, Columbia University, supplemented by publications in the field of education cataloged by The Research Libraries of The New York Public Library, selected on the basis of subject headings. Non-book materials, including theses, are included in this "Guide," with the exception of serials. All aspects and levels of education are represented in this "Guide," including such areas as: American elementary and secondary education, higher and adult education, early childhood education, history and philosophy of education, applied pedagogy, international and comparative education, educational administration, education of the culturally disadvantaged and physically handicapped, nursing education and education of minorities and women. Also well covered are the administrative reports of departments of education for various countries and for U.S. states and large cities. The Teachers College collection covers over 200 distinct educational systems. Works in all languages are included. The" Bibliographic Guide to Education" serves in part as an annual supplement to the "Dictionary Catalog of the Teachers College Library, Columbia University" (G.K. Hall & Co., 1970) and Supplements ("First Supplement," 1971; "Second Supplement," 1973; "Third Supplement," 1977).

Whose Knowledge Counts In Government Literacy Policies

Author: Kenneth S. Goodman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135096678
Size: 31.31 MB
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Accountability, in the form of standardized test scores, is built into many government literacy policies, with severe consequences for schools and districts that fail to meet ever-increasing performance levels. The key question this book addresses is whose knowledge is considered in framing government literacy policies? The intent is to raise awareness of the degree to which expertise is being ignored on a worldwide level and pseudo-science is becoming the basis for literacy policies and laws. The authors, all leading researchers from the U.S., U.K., Scotland, France, and Germany, have a wide range of views but share in common a deep concern about the lack of respect for knowledge among policy makers. Each author comes to the common subject of this volume from the vantage point of his or her major interests, ranging from an exposition of what should be the best knowledge utilized in an aspect of literacy education policy, to how political decisions are impacting literacy policy, to laying out the history of events in their own country. Collectively they offer a critical analysis of the condition of literacy education past and present and suggest alternative courses of action for the future.

Teaching Literacy In Fifth Grade

Author: Susan I. McMahon
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1593853408
Size: 68.92 MB
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For students, fifth grade is a time of increasing independence and responsibility. Yet fifth-graders vary widely in their reading and writing abilities--and they are still young enough to require considerable teacher support. Depicting an exemplary teacher in action, this indispensable book presents innovative, practical strategies for creating an organized, motivating, and literacy-rich fifth-grade classroom. The authors show how to assess student needs and implement standards-based instruction that targets comprehension, vocabulary, writing, genre study, and other crucial areas. Grounded in current best practices, the book includes helpful planning tips, illustrations, and reproducibles.

Language In Action

Author: Riikka Alanen
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Size: 21.42 MB
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The Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934) has been one of the central figures in the recent shift from the cognitive to the social and the cultural in educational and psychological research. A. N. Leontiev's (1903-1979) activity theory has had a similar impact in the West. A. A. Leontiev's (1936-2004) psycholinguistic theories have also started to attract increasing attention. The ideas of these scholars have also made their mark on second and foreign language learning research outside Russia. However, there is no one widely accepted, monolithic Vygotskian or Leontievian theory. Furthermore, the nature and role of language in action and activity remain open for debate. This edited volume presents 19 chapters bringing together different views from a number of disciplines for a critical analysis and reappraisal of the relationship between language and action. The topics range from theoretical and methodological issues related to sociocultural and activity theoretical views of language to empirical research reports on classroom interaction, identity, language assessment, teacher education and second and foreign language learning. The overall aim of Language in Action: Vygotsky and Leontievian Legacy Today is to shed light on the nature of human action and activity and the role that language has in mediating and shaping what we think, do, and learn. At the same time, the book serves as a showcase of different socially oriented approaches to the study of what we as human beings are and what we do with language.

Speaking Listening For All

Author: Sylvia Edwards
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113410894X
Size: 74.30 MB
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First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.