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Rare Earth Elements In Ultramafic And Mafic Rocks And Their Minerals

Author: Felix P. Lesnov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0415621070
Size: 61.93 MB
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This book presents an extensive overview of literature published globally in the last decades on REE distribution in minor and accessory minerals from various types of ultramafic, mafic, and other plutonic rocks. It is a continuation of the author’s work published in 2010: Rare Earth Elements in Ultramafic and Mafic Rocks and their Minerals. Main Types of Rocks. Rock-Forming Minerals. The analytical database created includes over 900 analyses of minerals, including garnets (341), chrome-spinels (38), ilmenites (160), zircons (210), apatites (62), titanites (51), perovskites (46) and micas (35). The book offers a brief historical background on REE distribution for each of the minerals and analytical methods for their determination; further, the main features of concentration of these impurities in the samples of different rocks and their manifestations are described and the regularities of REE distribution between coexisting phases, including parent melts, systematized available estimates of distribution coefficients are considered. REE isomorphism in these minerals is discussed as well as the possibilities of using data on REE distribution as typomorphic signs of determining the crystallization conditions of minerals. The numerous analyses of REE presented in this book can be used as reference data. Finally, there is an additional chapter on a new problem: the study of geochemical relations between REE and platinum group elements. As an overview of modern data on the geochemistry of REE in minor and accessory minerals from rocks of mafic-ultramafic complexes and as a reference book, this work will be of interest to a wide range of specialists studying petrology and geochemistry of products of ultramafic and mafic magmatism, including ore mineralization, as well as for graduate and undergraduate university students in geology departments.

Petrology Of Polygenic Mafic Ultramafic Massifs Of The East Sakhalin Ophiolite Association

Author: Felix P. Lesnov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351852213
Size: 36.50 MB
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The monograph is concerned with results of studies of petrology of mafic-ultramafic massifs as part of the East Sakhalin ophiolite association. It generalizes and interprets a large body of data (mainly original data) on geology, petrography, petrochemistry, and geochemistry of rocks; mineralogy and geochemistry of rock-forming and accessory minerals; chromite and platinum contents, and isotopic age of zircons from rocks of the typical mafic-ultramafic massifs of the East Sakhalin ophiolite association: Berezovka, Shel’ting, Komsomol’sk, and South Schmidt. Gabbroids from the Berezovka massif contain ultramafic xenoliths. Ultramafic rocks are locally cut by gabbroid and pyroxenite veins. Three spatially close but genetically autonomous bodies are distinguished in the structure of the massifs under study: protrusion of upper-mantle restitic ultramafic rocks (harzburgites, lherzolites, and dunites); intrusion of orthomagmatic gabbroids (gabbronorites, gabbro, and norites) that cuts it; and contact-reaction zone, located along the boundaries between gabbroid intrusion and ultramafic protrusion, which consists of hybrid ultramafic rocks (wehrlites, websterites, clinopyroxenites, and their olivine- and plagioclase-containing varieties) and hybrid gabbroids (melano- and mesocratic olivine gabbronorites and gabbro as well as troctolites). The hybrid ultramafic rocks and gabbroids are the product of interaction between mafic melts and restitic ultramafic rocks. Taking into account the later formation of the gabbroid intrusions compared to the ultramafic protrusions, the massifs in question are determined as polygenic. The idea of their polygenic formation is supported by data on the isotopic age of zircons from the Berezovka massif rocks. In this monograph the author develops his earlier proposed concept of polygenic formation of mafic–ultramafic massifs belonging to ophiolite associations. The book addresses a wide circle of petrologists and practicing geologists as well as senior-year students and postgraduates studying problems of mafic-ultramafic magmatism.

Elements Of Geology

Author: S.M. MATHUR
Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 9788120335158
Size: 41.54 MB
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Aimed at B.Sc. students of geology, this introductory text develops a basic understanding of the Earth as a complex, evolving system of geological processes. This book will also be of immense use to those postgraduate students of geology who opt for this stream after graduating in disciplines other than geology. Geology as a science has recently gained increasing importance because of the current developments in oil and mineral exploration and also because of recent occurrences of earthquakes and tsunamis. This book covers the entire spectrum of the geologic concepts and relates them to the main processes of geomorphology, earthquakes and volcanoes. Important types of the three categories of rocks—igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic—that form the crust of the Earth are described with their characteristic mineralogy. Major structures that are born of tectonic activities are discussed. Palaeontological descriptions cover not only the plant and animal groups but also other evidences of life in the geological record and evolution. An important feature of the text is that modern stratigraphic methods of classification are outlined clearly, and the latest geologic time scale with numerical ages as approved in 2004 by the International Commission on Stratigrahy of the International Union of Geological Sciences is incorporated.

Geological Survey Of Canada Current Research Online No 2000 C21

Author:
Publisher: Natural Resources Canada
ISBN: 0660180405
Size: 42.34 MB
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Insight into the Archean thermal & tectonic regime may be offered by studying the late Archean Quetico alkaline province, a suite of carbonate-bearing magmatic complexes associated with a recently discovered carbonatite body in north-west Ontario. This paper attempts to give a broad overview of the character of several such bodies examined in the Quetico alkaline province in summer 1999. It first describes the general geology of the study area and the chemical compositions of the intrusions studied. It then describes the field characteristics of the North Elbow Lake, Whalen lake, Harnett Lake, and Beaverhouse Lake intrusions. Origin of the intrusions is also discussed.

Economic Geology

Author: Walter L. Pohl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 144439486X
Size: 16.83 MB
Format: PDF
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Humanity’s ever-increasing hunger for mineral raw materials, caused by a growing global population and ever increasing standards of living, has resulted in economic geology becoming a subject of urgent importance. This book provides a broad panorama of mineral deposits, covering their origin and geological characteristics, the principles of the search for ores and minerals, and the investigation of newly found deposits. Practical and environmental issues that arise during the life cycle of a mine and after its closure are addressed, with an emphasis on sustainable and "green" mining. The central scientific theme of the book is to place the extraordinary variability of mineral deposits in the frame of fundamental geological processes. The book is written for earth science students and practicing geologists worldwide. Professionals in administration, resource development, mining, mine reclamation, metallurgy, and mineral economics will also find the text valuable. Economic Geology is a fully revised translation of the the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology. The author's website can be found at: http://www.walter-pohl.com.

Origin Of Potassium Rich Silica Deficient Igneous Rocks

Author: Alok Krishna Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132220838
Size: 61.46 MB
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The book summarizes the occurrence, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology and phase-equilibria studies in air and under high pressures related to the most intriguing group of potassium-rich mafic and ultramafic rocks, often including host of exotic mineral assemblages including feldspathoids. Mantle-derived K-rich melts had intrigued most of the founders of Geology and many of the later experts in the field of Igneous Petrology, because they are sometimes associated with carbonatites and even diamond. They tend to contain anomalous concentration of many such elements as K, Rb, Sr, U, F, P, etc., along with Ni, Co and Cr indicating a mixture of crust and mantle materials. Although these rocks occur rarely in ancient geologic time, they have been erupting mostly in modern geological history (less than last 120 Ma or so). Are the old age data real or the result of a sampling problem? Modern observations leave no doubt that sediments must be subducted on a large scale. There is now evidence that the upper mantle (and perhaps even the lower mantle) is not homogeneous but rather like a fruit cake, and that there are thermal anomalies in the mantle resulting from deep mantle plumes or subduction. Is this related to release of these unusual rocks clearing the mantle of left over subduction materials? This volume, written for those interested in the geochemistry of K-rich melts from the deep Earth, reviews the present state of knowledge of these unique igneous rocks. The author is an expert in the field of Igneous Petrology and the book will serve as a valuable reference book for researchers and academicians in the discipline.