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Reading Writing And Proving

Author: Ulrich Daepp
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441994793
Size: 51.25 MB
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This book, which is based on Pólya's method of problem solving, aids students in their transition from calculus (or precalculus) to higher-level mathematics. The book begins by providing a great deal of guidance on how to approach definitions, examples, and theorems in mathematics and ends with suggested projects for independent study. Students will follow Pólya's four step approach: analyzing the problem, devising a plan to solve the problem, carrying out that plan, and then determining the implication of the result. In addition to the Pólya approach to proofs, this book places special emphasis on reading proofs carefully and writing them well. The authors have included a wide variety of problems, examples, illustrations and exercises, some with hints and solutions, designed specifically to improve the student's ability to read and write proofs. Historical connections are made throughout the text, and students are encouraged to use the rather extensive bibliography to begin making connections of their own. While standard texts in this area prepare students for future courses in algebra, this book also includes chapters on sequences, convergence, and metric spaces for those wanting to bridge the gap between the standard course in calculus and one in analysis.

An Accompaniment To Higher Mathematics

Author: George R. Exner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461239982
Size: 44.31 MB
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Designed for students preparing to engage in their first struggles to understand and write proofs and to read mathematics independently, this is well suited as a supplementary text in courses on introductory real analysis, advanced calculus, abstract algebra, or topology. The book teaches in detail how to construct examples and non-examples to help understand a new theorem or definition; it shows how to discover the outline of a proof in the form of the theorem and how logical structures determine the forms that proofs may take. Throughout, the text asks the reader to pause and work on an example or a problem before continuing, and encourages the student to engage the topic at hand and to learn from failed attempts at solving problems. The book may also be used as the main text for a "transitions" course bridging the gap between calculus and higher mathematics. The whole concludes with a set of "Laboratories" in which students can practice the skills learned in the earlier chapters on set theory and function theory.

Introduction To Mathematical Structures And Proofs

Author: Larry J. Gerstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461442656
Size: 67.31 MB
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As a student moves from basic calculus courses into upper-division courses in linear and abstract algebra, real and complex analysis, number theory, topology, and so on, a "bridge" course can help ensure a smooth transition. Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs is a textbook intended for such a course, or for self-study. This book introduces an array of fundamental mathematical structures. It also explores the delicate balance of intuition and rigor—and the flexible thinking—required to prove a nontrivial result. In short, this book seeks to enhance the mathematical maturity of the reader. The new material in this second edition includes a section on graph theory, several new sections on number theory (including primitive roots, with an application to card-shuffling), and a brief introduction to the complex numbers (including a section on the arithmetic of the Gaussian integers). Solutions for even numbered exercises are available on springer.com for instructors adopting the text for a course.

The Art Of Proof

Author: Matthias Beck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441970237
Size: 64.63 MB
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The Art of Proof is designed for a one-semester or two-quarter course. A typical student will have studied calculus (perhaps also linear algebra) with reasonable success. With an artful mixture of chatty style and interesting examples, the student's previous intuitive knowledge is placed on solid intellectual ground. The topics covered include: integers, induction, algorithms, real numbers, rational numbers, modular arithmetic, limits, and uncountable sets. Methods, such as axiom, theorem and proof, are taught while discussing the mathematics rather than in abstract isolation. The book ends with short essays on further topics suitable for seminar-style presentation by small teams of students, either in class or in a mathematics club setting. These include: continuity, cryptography, groups, complex numbers, ordinal number, and generating functions.

Proofs And Fundamentals

Author: Ethan D. Bloch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441971272
Size: 73.59 MB
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“Proofs and Fundamentals: A First Course in Abstract Mathematics” 2nd edition is designed as a "transition" course to introduce undergraduates to the writing of rigorous mathematical proofs, and to such fundamental mathematical ideas as sets, functions, relations, and cardinality. The text serves as a bridge between computational courses such as calculus, and more theoretical, proofs-oriented courses such as linear algebra, abstract algebra and real analysis. This 3-part work carefully balances Proofs, Fundamentals, and Extras. Part 1 presents logic and basic proof techniques; Part 2 thoroughly covers fundamental material such as sets, functions and relations; and Part 3 introduces a variety of extra topics such as groups, combinatorics and sequences. A gentle, friendly style is used, in which motivation and informal discussion play a key role, and yet high standards in rigor and in writing are never compromised. New to the second edition: 1) A new section about the foundations of set theory has been added at the end of the chapter about sets. This section includes a very informal discussion of the Zermelo– Fraenkel Axioms for set theory. We do not make use of these axioms subsequently in the text, but it is valuable for any mathematician to be aware that an axiomatic basis for set theory exists. Also included in this new section is a slightly expanded discussion of the Axiom of Choice, and new discussion of Zorn's Lemma, which is used later in the text. 2) The chapter about the cardinality of sets has been rearranged and expanded. There is a new section at the start of the chapter that summarizes various properties of the set of natural numbers; these properties play important roles subsequently in the chapter. The sections on induction and recursion have been slightly expanded, and have been relocated to an earlier place in the chapter (following the new section), both because they are more concrete than the material found in the other sections of the chapter, and because ideas from the sections on induction and recursion are used in the other sections. Next comes the section on the cardinality of sets (which was originally the first section of the chapter); this section gained proofs of the Schroeder–Bernstein theorem and the Trichotomy Law for Sets, and lost most of the material about finite and countable sets, which has now been moved to a new section devoted to those two types of sets. The chapter concludes with the section on the cardinality of the number systems. 3) The chapter on the construction of the natural numbers, integers and rational numbers from the Peano Postulates was removed entirely. That material was originally included to provide the needed background about the number systems, particularly for the discussion of the cardinality of sets, but it was always somewhat out of place given the level and scope of this text. The background material about the natural numbers needed for the cardinality of sets has now been summarized in a new section at the start of that chapter, making the chapter both self-contained and more accessible than it previously was. 4) The section on families of sets has been thoroughly revised, with the focus being on families of sets in general, not necessarily thought of as indexed. 5) A new section about the convergence of sequences has been added to the chapter on selected topics. This new section, which treats a topic from real analysis, adds some diversity to the chapter, which had hitherto contained selected topics of only an algebraic or combinatorial nature. 6) A new section called ``You Are the Professor'' has been added to the end of the last chapter. This new section, which includes a number of attempted proofs taken from actual homework exercises submitted by students, offers the reader the opportunity to solidify her facility for writing proofs by critiquing these submissions as if she were the instructor for the course. 7) All known errors have been corrected. 8) Many minor adjustments of wording have been made throughout the text, with the hope of improving the exposition.

A First Course In Real Analysis

Author: Sterling K. Berberian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441985484
Size: 65.94 MB
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Mathematics is the music of science, and real analysis is the Bach of mathematics. There are many other foolish things I could say about the subject of this book, but the foregoing will give the reader an idea of where my heart lies. The present book was written to support a first course in real analysis, normally taken after a year of elementary calculus. Real analysis is, roughly speaking, the modern setting for Calculus, "real" alluding to the field of real numbers that underlies it all. At center stage are functions, defined and taking values in sets of real numbers or in sets (the plane, 3-space, etc.) readily derived from the real numbers; a first course in real analysis traditionally places the emphasis on real-valued functions defined on sets of real numbers. The agenda for the course: (1) start with the axioms for the field ofreal numbers, (2) build, in one semester and with appropriate rigor, the foun dations of calculus (including the "Fundamental Theorem"), and, along the way, (3) develop those skills and attitudes that enable us to continue learning mathematics on our own. Three decades of experience with the exercise have not diminished my astonishment that it can be done.

Mathematics And Its History

Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 144196052X
Size: 71.82 MB
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From a review of the second edition: "This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here." (David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society) This book offers a collection of historical essays detailing a large variety of mathematical disciplines and issues; it’s accessible to a broad audience. This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and new sections on alternating groups and the Poincare conjecture. Many more exercises have been added as well as commentary that helps place the exercises in context.

Elementary Analysis

Author: Kenneth A. Ross
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461462711
Size: 50.18 MB
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For over three decades, this best-selling classic has been used by thousands of students in the United States and abroad as a must-have textbook for a transitional course from calculus to analysis. It has proven to be very useful for mathematics majors who have no previous experience with rigorous proofs. Its friendly style unlocks the mystery of writing proofs, while carefully examining the theoretical basis for calculus. Proofs are given in full, and the large number of well-chosen examples and exercises range from routine to challenging. The second edition preserves the book’s clear and concise style, illuminating discussions, and simple, well-motivated proofs. New topics include material on the irrationality of pi, the Baire category theorem, Newton's method and the secant method, and continuous nowhere-differentiable functions.

Topology Of Surfaces

Author: L.Christine Kinsey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461208998
Size: 33.53 MB
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" . . . that famous pedagogical method whereby one begins with the general and proceeds to the particular only after the student is too confused to understand even that anymore. " Michael Spivak This text was written as an antidote to topology courses such as Spivak It is meant to provide the student with an experience in geomet describes. ric topology. Traditionally, the only topology an undergraduate might see is point-set topology at a fairly abstract level. The next course the average stu dent would take would be a graduate course in algebraic topology, and such courses are commonly very homological in nature, providing quick access to current research, but not developing any intuition or geometric sense. I have tried in this text to provide the undergraduate with a pragmatic introduction to the field, including a sampling from point-set, geometric, and algebraic topology, and trying not to include anything that the student cannot immediately experience. The exercises are to be considered as an in tegral part of the text and, ideally, should be addressed when they are met, rather than at the end of a block of material. Many of them are quite easy and are intended to give the student practice working with the definitions and digesting the current topic before proceeding. The appendix provides a brief survey of the group theory needed.

A Readable Introduction To Real Mathematics

Author: Daniel Rosenthal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319056549
Size: 47.90 MB
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Designed for an undergraduate course or for independent study, this text presents sophisticated mathematical ideas in an elementary and friendly fashion. The fundamental purpose of this book is to engage the reader and to teach a real understanding of mathematical thinking while conveying the beauty and elegance of mathematics. The text focuses on teaching the understanding of mathematical proofs. The material covered has applications both to mathematics and to other subjects. The book contains a large number of exercises of varying difficulty, designed to help reinforce basic concepts and to motivate and challenge the reader. The sole prerequisite for understanding the text is basic high school algebra; some trigonometry is needed for Chapters 9 and 12. Topics covered include: mathematical induction - modular arithmetic - the fundamental theorem of arithmetic - Fermat's little theorem - RSA encryption - the Euclidean algorithm -rational and irrational numbers - complex numbers - cardinality - Euclidean plane geometry - constructability (including a proof that an angle of 60 degrees cannot be trisected with a straightedge and compass). This textbook is suitable for a wide variety of courses and for a broad range of students in the fields of education, liberal arts, physical sciences and mathematics. Students at the senior high school level who like mathematics will also be able to further their understanding of mathematical thinking by reading this book.