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Reconstructing Prehistory

Author: James A. Bell
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 9781566391597
Size: 69.23 MB
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Reevaluating the method of scientific investigation, James A. Bell provides a bold philosophical framework for developing and assessing archaeologists' theories of the past. More informed and judicious decisions, the author asserts, are made when archaeologists explore questions such as: • How can theories be formulated so that they increase understanding and provide insight, and are theories still useful when they do not? • How can theories be adjusted when anomalies are revealed? • How can theories be assessed against competing theories? • When should theories be abandoned, and when should they be pursued further? With numerous examples from archaeology as well as comparative examples from the physical and biological sciences, Bell illustrates how exploring the answers to these and related inquiries will lead to improved formulation and testing of theories.

The Oxford Handbook Of Archaeological Ceramic Analysis

Author: Alice M. W. Hunt
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199681538
Size: 61.82 MB
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The Oxford Handbook of Archaeological Ceramic Analysis draws together topics and methodologies essential for the socio-cultural, mineralogical, and geochemical analysis of archaelogical ceramic. Ceramic is one of the most complex and ubiquitous archaeomaterials in the archaeological record: it occurs around the world and through time in almost every culture and context, from building materials and technological installations to utilitarian wares and votive figurines. For more than 100 years, archaeologists have used ceramic analysis to answer complex questions about economy, subsistence, technological innovation, social organization, and dating. The volume is structured around the themes "Research design and data analysis," "Foundational concepts," "Evaluating ceramic provenance," "Investigating ceramic manufacture," "Assessing vessel function," and "Dating ceramic assemblages." It provides a common vocabulary and offers practical tools and guidelines for ceramic analysis using techniques and methodologies ranging from network analysis and typology to rehydroxylation dating and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Each chapter provides the theoretical background and practical guidelines, such as cost and destructiveness of analysis, for each technique, as well as detailed case studies illustrating the application and interpretation of analytical data for answering anthropological questions.

Archaeology Volume I

Author: Donald L. Hardesty
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1848260024
Size: 67.49 MB
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Archaeology is a component of Encyclopedia of Social Sciences and Humanities in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Archaeology is a road for traveling into the past that is independent of and complementary to documents and memory. The archaeological record provides historical perspectives on variability and change in human life support systems with the potential for use in planning for future sustainable development. The Theme is organized into four different topics which represent the main scientific areas of the theme: - Foundations of Archaeology; - The Archaeology of Life Support Systems; - World Cultural Heritage; - Preserving Archaeological Sites and Monuments which are then expanded into multiple subtopics, each as a chapter. The first topic deals with historical, methodological, and theoretical foundations of archaeology. The second topic explores the archaeological record of human life support systems and includes chapters on foraging, food production such as farming and nomadic lifestyles, civilizations, water-management systems, and sustainability. World cultural heritage is the third topic. Finally, the fourth topic covers the preservation of cultural memorials such as archaeological sites, landscapes, and monuments. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.

A Dictionary Of Archaeology

Author: Ian Shaw
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470751967
Size: 56.26 MB
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This dictionary provides those studying or working in archaeology with a complete reference to the field.

Creativity In Human Evolution And Prehistory

Author: Steven Mithen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134720122
Size: 79.14 MB
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We live in a world surrounded by remarkable cultural achievements of human kind. Almost every day we hear of new innovations in technology, in medicine and in the arts which remind us that humans are capable of remarkable creativity. But what is human creativity? The modern world provides a tiny fraction of cultural diversity and the evidence for human creativity, far more can be seen by looking back into prehistory. The book examines how our understanding of human creativity can be extended by exploring this phenomenon during human evolution and prehistory. The book offers unique perspectives on the nature of human creativity from archaeologists who are concerned with long term patterns of cultural change and have access to quite different types of human behaviour than that which exists today. It asks whether humans are the only creative species, or whether our extinct relatives such as Homo habilis and the Neanderthals also displayed creative thinking. It explores what we can learn about the nature of human creativity from cultural developments during prehistory, such as changes in the manner in which the dead were buried, monuments constructed, and the natural world exploited. In doing so, new light is thrown on these cultural developments and the behaviour of our prehistoric ancestors. By examining the nature of creativity during human evolution and prehistory these archaeologists, supported by contributions from psychology, computer science and social anthropology, show that human creativity is a far more diverse and complex phenomena than simply flashes of genius by isolated individuals. Indeed they show that unless perspectives from prehistory are taken into account, our understanding of human creativity will be limited and incomplete.

Theory Method And Practice In Modern Archaeology

Author: Robert J. Jeske
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
ISBN: 9780897897488
Size: 37.27 MB
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This book presents 18 essays by leading scholars covering mortuary analysis, the archaeology of foraging and agricultural societies, cultural evolution, and archaeological method and theory, which transcend the processual/postprocessual debate in archaeology and provide examples of how archaeologists think about, and go about, studying the past. As archaeology encounters the 21st century, debate over the nature of the discipline dominates professional discourse. Archaeologists are embattled over isms: processualism, postprocessualism, scientism, and humanism are ubiquitous buzzwords in the literature. Yet archaeology is a craft practiced by individuals, learned from and influenced by other individuals. Sometimes a peson, through sheer force of intellectual spirit, rises above the debate to make a mark on the field in ways that cross out schools, paradigms, and factions. It is fitting to look back at the influence one such individual has had on archaeological methods, theory, data collection, and syntheses over the last half century. This volume draws on the experience of students and colleagues who worked with and were strongly influenced by James A. Brown's approach to the past. The volume is divided into five categories, each reflecting one distinctive facet of Brown's affect on archaeology: mortuary analysis, foraging and horticultural societies, complex agriculturalists, proto-historic and historic societies, and method and theory. These diverse categories, with articles by archaeologists of many backgrounds, are drawn together by the threads of Brown's intellectual legacy. Not all authors here are in agreement with Brown's views on their subjects, but all acknolwedge that his work in the area sets a standard that needs to be met if one is to succeed.

Indian Archaeology In Retrospect

Author: S. Settar
Publisher:
ISBN: 9788173043222
Size: 26.88 MB
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The Indian Archaeology In Retrospect Attempts To Take Stock Of The Progress Made In The Field Of South Asian Archaeology, Especially During The Latter Half Of The Twentieth Century. Fifty- Nine Papers, Spread Over Four Volumes, Are Contributed By A Team Of Scholars, Well-Known In The Areas Of Their Specialization.

Archaeology

Author: David Hurst Thomas
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780155013698
Size: 79.52 MB
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The Third Edition of David Hurst Thomas's ARCHAEOLOGY reflects the fascinating combination of traditional, formal scientific technique and the postmodern humanistic approach that defines archaeology today. Offering a dynamic account of history and theory, Thomas also emphasizes the importance of ideology and cognition.