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Reinforcement Learning

Author: Richard S. Sutton
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262193986
Size: 23.70 MB
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An account of key ideas and algorithms in reinforcement learning. The discussion ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to recent developments and applications. Areas studied include reinforcement learning problems in terms of Markov decision problems and solution methods.

Reinforcement Learning

Author: Richard S. Sutton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461536189
Size: 16.85 MB
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Reinforcement learning is the learning of a mapping from situations to actions so as to maximize a scalar reward or reinforcement signal. The learner is not told which action to take, as in most forms of machine learning, but instead must discover which actions yield the highest reward by trying them. In the most interesting and challenging cases, actions may affect not only the immediate reward, but also the next situation, and through that all subsequent rewards. These two characteristics -- trial-and-error search and delayed reward -- are the most important distinguishing features of reinforcement learning. Reinforcement learning is both a new and a very old topic in AI. The term appears to have been coined by Minsk (1961), and independently in control theory by Walz and Fu (1965). The earliest machine learning research now viewed as directly relevant was Samuel's (1959) checker player, which used temporal-difference learning to manage delayed reward much as it is used today. Of course learning and reinforcement have been studied in psychology for almost a century, and that work has had a very strong impact on the AI/engineering work. One could in fact consider all of reinforcement learning to be simply the reverse engineering of certain psychological learning processes (e.g. operant conditioning and secondary reinforcement). Reinforcement Learning is an edited volume of original research, comprising seven invited contributions by leading researchers.

Reinforcement Learning

Author: Richard S. Sutton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792392347
Size: 49.57 MB
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Reinforcement learning, one of the most active research areas in artificial intelligence, is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives when interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. In "Reinforcement Learning, Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning. Their discussion ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications. The only necessary mathematical background is familiarity with elementary concepts of probability.The book is divided into three parts. Part I defines the reinforcement learning problem in terms of Markov decision processes. Part II provides basic solution methods: dynamic programming, Monte Carlo methods, and temporal-difference learning. Part III presents a unified view of the solution methods and incorporates artificial neural networks, eligibility traces, and planning;,the two final chapters present case studies and consider the future of reinforcement learning.

Reinforcement Learning With Python

Author: Stuart Broad
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781974364022
Size: 56.48 MB
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Reinforcement learning with python Although it has been around for decades, the concept of Reinforcement Learning has reached its peak a couple of years ago. Since then, the technology industry has been updating robots and presenting innovative machines on the market that none of us knew could exist. If this is something that excites you and you have a decent programming skills, then this book will help you master reinforcement learning.

Algorithms For Reinforcement Learning

Author: Csaba Szepesvari
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608454924
Size: 35.78 MB
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Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms' merits and limitations. Reinforcement learning is of great interest because of the large number of practical applications that it can be used to address, ranging from problems in artificial intelligence to operations research or control engineering. In this book, we focus on those algorithms of reinforcement learning that build on the powerful theory of dynamic programming.We give a fairly comprehensive catalog of learning problems, describe the core ideas, note a large number of state of the art algorithms, followed by the discussion of their theoretical properties and limitations.

Deep Learning

Author: Ian Goodfellow
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262035618
Size: 31.17 MB
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An introduction to a broad range of topics in deep learning, covering mathematical and conceptual background, deep learning techniques used in industry, and research perspectives.

Introduction To Machine Learning

Author: Ethem Alpaydin
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262028182
Size: 72.97 MB
Format: PDF
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The goal of machine learning is to program computers to use example data or past experience to solve a given problem. Many successful applications of machine learning exist already, including systems that analyze past sales data to predict customer behavior, optimize robot behavior so that a task can be completed using minimum resources, and extract knowledge from bioinformatics data. Introduction to Machine Learning is a comprehensive textbook on the subject, covering a broad array of topics not usually included in introductory machine learning texts. Subjects include supervised learning; Bayesian decision theory; parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric methods; multivariate analysis; hidden Markov models; reinforcement learning; kernel machines; graphical models; Bayesian estimation; and statistical testing.Machine learning is rapidly becoming a skill that computer science students must master before graduation. The third edition of Introduction to Machine Learning reflects this shift, with added support for beginners, including selected solutions for exercises and additional example data sets (with code available online). Other substantial changes include discussions of outlier detection; ranking algorithms for perceptrons and support vector machines; matrix decomposition and spectral methods; distance estimation; new kernel algorithms; deep learning in multilayered perceptrons; and the nonparametric approach to Bayesian methods. All learning algorithms are explained so that students can easily move from the equations in the book to a computer program. The book can be used by both advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It will also be of interest to professionals who are concerned with the application of machine learning methods.

Reinforcement Learning

Author: Marco Wiering
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642276458
Size: 65.62 MB
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Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together they truly represent a state-of-the-art of current reinforcement learning research. Marco Wiering works at the artificial intelligence department of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He has published extensively on various reinforcement learning topics. Martijn van Otterlo works in the cognitive artificial intelligence group at the Radboud University Nijmegen in The Netherlands. He has mainly focused on expressive knowledge representation in reinforcement learning settings.

Machine Learning For Data Streams

Author: Albert Bifet
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262346052
Size: 79.30 MB
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A hands-on approach to tasks and techniques in data stream mining and real-time analytics, with examples in MOA, a popular freely available open-source software framework. Today many information sources—including sensor networks, financial markets, social networks, and healthcare monitoring—are so-called data streams, arriving sequentially and at high speed. Analysis must take place in real time, with partial data and without the capacity to store the entire data set. This book presents algorithms and techniques used in data stream mining and real-time analytics. Taking a hands-on approach, the book demonstrates the techniques using MOA (Massive Online Analysis), a popular, freely available open-source software framework, allowing readers to try out the techniques after reading the explanations. The book first offers a brief introduction to the topic, covering big data mining, basic methodologies for mining data streams, and a simple example of MOA. More detailed discussions follow, with chapters on sketching techniques, change, classification, ensemble methods, regression, clustering, and frequent pattern mining. Most of these chapters include exercises, an MOA-based lab session, or both. Finally, the book discusses the MOA software, covering the MOA graphical user interface, the command line, use of its API, and the development of new methods within MOA. The book will be an essential reference for readers who want to use data stream mining as a tool, researchers in innovation or data stream mining, and programmers who want to create new algorithms for MOA.

Learning With Kernels

Author: Bernhard Schölkopf
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262194754
Size: 28.74 MB
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A comprehensive introduction to Support Vector Machines and related kernel methods.