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Responsibilities And Liabilities For Commercial Activity In The Arctic

Author: Vibe Ulfbeck
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317340825
Size: 36.53 MB
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Given the magnitude of the risks associated with commercial activities in the Arctic arising as a result of the milder climate, new business opportunities raise important questions of responsibility and liability. This book analyses the issues of responsibility and liability connected with the exploitation of natural resources, marine transport and other activities in the Arctic. Applying a combined private and public law perspective on these issues, it considers both the business and societal interests related to Arctic development using Greenland as an example. The book focuses on problems that are specific to Greenland and wider issues that affect all Arctic states.

Environmental Governance And Common Pool Resources

Author: Michael Faure
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351688812
Size: 51.29 MB
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This book analyses the drivers of specific common pool resource problems, particularly in fisheries and forestry, examining the way in which private and public regulation have intervened to fight the common pool resource problem by contributing to the establishment and maintenance of property rights. It focuses on the various forms of regulation that have been put in place to protect fisheries and forestry over the past decades – both from a theoretical as well as from a policy perspective – comparing the concrete interaction of legal and policy instruments in eight separate jurisdictions.

Ecological Restoration In International Environmental Law

Author: Anastasia Telesetsky
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317633660
Size: 54.19 MB
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Human activities are depleting ecosystems at an unprecedented rate. In spite of nature conservation efforts worldwide, many ecosystems including those critical for human well-being have been damaged or destroyed. States and citizens need a new vision of how humans can reconnect with the natural environment. With its focus on the long-term holistic recovery of ecosystems, ecological restoration has received increasing attention in the past decade from both scientists and policymakers. Research on the implications of ecological restoration for the law and law for ecological restoration has been largely overlooked. This is the first published book to examine comprehensively the relationship between international environmental law and ecological restoration. While international environmental law (IEL) has developed significantly as a discipline over the past four decades, this book enquires whether IEL can now assist states in making a strategic transition from not just protecting and maintaining the natural environment but also actively restoring it. Arguing that states have international duties to restore, this book offers reflections on the philosophical context of ecological restoration and the legal content of a duty to restore from an international law, European Union law and national law perspective. The book concludes with a discussion of several contemporary themes of interest to both lawyers and ecologists including the role of private actors, protected areas and climate change in ecological restoration.

International Natural Resources Law Investment And Sustainability

Author: Shawkat Alam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131753588X
Size: 15.51 MB
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International Natural Resources Law, Investment and Sustainability provides a clear and concise insight into the relationship between the institutions that govern foreign investment, sustainable development and the rules and regulations that administer natural resources. In this book, several leading experts explore different perspectives in how investment and natural resources come together to achieve sustainable development in developing countries with examples from water, oil and gas, renewable energy, mineral, agriculture, and carbon trading. Despite varying perspectives, it is clear that several themes are central in considering the linkages between natural resources, investment and sustainability. Specifically, transparency, good governance and citizen empowerment are vital conditions which encourage positive social, economic and environmental outcomes for developing countries. In addition, this book provides new insights into key concepts which underpin international law, including sovereign rights and state responsibility principles. It is clear from this book that in the attempt to reconcile these concepts and principles from separate legal regimes, complex policy questions emerge whereby it is difficult to attain mutually beneficial or succinct outcomes. This book explores how countries prioritise their policy objectives to achieve their notion of sustainable natural resource use, which is strongly influenced by power imbalances that inform North–South cooperation, as well as South–South cooperation in the international investment regime. This book will be of great interest to students, academics and researchers of international environmental law, international human rights law, international investment law and international economic law. This book may also be of relevance to environmentalists, policy-makers, NGOs, and investors working in the natural resources field.

Enforcement Of International Environmental Law

Author: Martin Hedemann-Robinson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351066560
Size: 35.86 MB
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The international community has generated several hundred multilateral environmental agreements, yet it has been far less successful in developing means to ensure that contracting parties honour them in practice. The subject of law enforcement has traditionally attracted relatively little attention amongst international policy-makers at the formation stage of a multilateral environmental accord. Commonly, the question of how to secure collective adherence to environmental treaty regimes might well only be considered in depth at a much later stage of an environmental agreement’s evolution, if at all. At the same time, the significance of the issue of enforcement has gradually received more considered attention by states and international institutions. Providing an analysis of the nature, extent and current state of the international legal framework concerned with enhancing effective implementation of international environmental law, this book considers the scope and impact of international rules of law whose remit is to require or promote compliance by states with their international environmental legal obligations.

Management And Regulation Of Pension Schemes

Author: Nicholas Morris
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351975153
Size: 80.46 MB
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Perhaps the greatest long-term challenge facing modern economies is how to pay for the living expenses and care costs of the elderly. Following policy decisions made in Australia in the 1990s, a substantial part of the pension requirements of the next cohort of retirees will be met from savings accumulated during working years. The effective management of these savings is crucial. If they are invested wisely, the assets available to fund pensions and care will grow; if not, available funds may turn out to be insufficient. Unfortunately, there is considerable evidence worldwide that the management of funds attracts rent-seeking behaviour by the financial services industry which erodes much of the potential return. Australia introduced compulsory superannuation contributions for its working population in 1991, leading to a proliferation of funded schemes that are largely run by the private sector. Complexity, and many degrees of separation between fund members and those who manage their funds, have emerged as serious problems. Combined with weak competitive pressures and governance systems, and insufficient legal and regulatory constraints, the result is a system that does not serve its members well. This book provides a detailed evaluation of the Australian experience, highlights the extent to which the financial services industry has extracted rents from Australian pensioners, and how and why this occurred. Based on original empirical research, and examination of industry reviews and relevant literature, the book demonstrates the numerous principal–agent, conflict of interest and rent extraction problems that have emerged in Australia. The book makes suggestions for how these problems can be addressed in Australia, and also provides lessons for other countries wishing to enact pension reform.

Protecting Traditional Knowledge

Author: Daniel F. Robinson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317354850
Size: 18.64 MB
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This is the first comprehensive review of the Intergovernmental Committee (IGC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) established in 2000. It provides an in-depth consideration of the key thematic areas within WIPO discussions – genetic resources (GRs), traditional knowledge (TK) and traditional cultural expressions (TCEs) through the perspectives of a broad range of experts and stakeholders, including indigenous peoples and local communities. It also looks at how these areas have been treated in a number of forums and settings (including national systems and experiences, and also in trade agreements) and the interface with WIPO discussions. Furthermore, the book analyses the process and the negotiation dynamics since the IGC received a mandate from WIPO members, in 2009, to undertake formal text-based negotiations towards legal instruments for the protection of GR, TK and TCEs. While there has been some progress in these negotiations, important disagreements persist. If these are to be resolved, the adoption of these legal instruments would be a significant development towards resolving key gaps in the modern intellectual property system. In this regard, the book considers the future of the IGC and suggests options which could contribute towards achieving a consensual outcome.

Global Perspectives In Urban Law

Author: Nestor M. Davidson
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780815372271
Size: 37.37 MB
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The growing field of urban law demands a collaborative scholarly focus on comparative and global perspectives. This volume offers diverse insights into urban law, with emerging theories and analyses of topics ranging from criminal reform and urban housing, to social and economic inequality and financial crises, and democratization and freedom for individual identity and space. Particularly now, social, economic, and cultural issues must be closely examined in conjunction with the rule of law not only to address inadequate access to basic services, but also to construct long-term plans for our cities and our world--a bright, safe future.

Essential Concepts Of Global Environmental Governance

Author: Jean-Frédéric Morin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136777040
Size: 78.46 MB
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Aligning global governance to the challenges of sustainability is one of the most urgent environmental issues to be addressed. This book is a timely and up-to-date compilation of the main pieces of the global environmental governance puzzle. The book is comprised of 101 entries, each defining a central concept in global environmental governance, presenting its historical evolution, introducing related debates and including key bibliographical references and further reading. The entries combine analytical rigour with empirical description. The book: offers cutting edge analysis of the state of global environmental governance, raises an up-to-date debate on global governance for sustainable development, gives an in-depth exploration of current international architecture of global environmental governance, examines the interaction between environmental politics and other fields of governance such as trade, development and security, elaborates a critical review of the recent literature in global environmental governance. This unique work synthesizes writing from an internationally diverse range of well-known experts in the field of global environmental governance. Innovative thinking and high-profile expertise come together to create a volume that is accessible to students, scholars and practitioners alike.

Routledge Handbook Of National And Regional Ocean Policies

Author: Biliana Cicin-Sain
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317658051
Size: 44.52 MB
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This comprehensive handbook, prepared by leading ocean policy academics and practitioners from around the world, presents in-depth analyses of the experiences of fifteen developed and developing nations and four key regions of the world that have taken concrete steps toward cross-cutting and integrated national and regional ocean policy. All chapters follow a common framework for policy analysis. While most coastal nations of the world already have a variety of sectoral policies in place to manage different uses of the ocean (such as shipping, fishing, oil and gas development), in the last two decades, the coastal nations covered in the book have undertaken concerted efforts to articulate and implement an integrated, ecosystem-based vision for the governance of ocean areas under their jurisdiction. This includes goals and procedures to harmonize existing uses and laws, to foster sustainable development of ocean areas, to protect biodiversity and vulnerable resources and ecosystems, and to coordinate the actions of the many government agencies that are typically involved in oceans affairs. The book highlights the serious conflicts of use in most national ocean zones and the varying attempts by nations to follow the prescriptions emanating from the 1982 UN Law of the Sea Convention and the outcomes of the 1992, 2002, and 2012 sustainable development summits. The interrelationship among uses and processes in the coast and ocean requires that ocean governance be integrated, precautionary, and anticipatory. Overall, the book provides a definitive state-of-the-art review and analysis of national and regional ocean policies around the world.