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Rethinking Risk And The Precautionary Principle

Author: Julian Morris
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080516238
Size: 14.88 MB
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Rethinking Risk and the Precautionary Principle challenges the claim that the precautionary principle is an appropriate guide to public policy decision-making in the face of uncertainty. The precautionary principle is frequently invoked as a justification for regulating human activities. From bans on the use of growth hormones in cattle to restrictions on children's playground activities, precautionary thinking seems to be taking over our lives. As the contributors to this book show, such an approach is of dubious utility and may even be counterproductive. This is a timely and important contribution to the debate on how to manage risk in the modern world. The editor, Julian Morris, is Director of the Environment and Technology Programme at the Institute of Economic Affairs in London. He has written widely on issues relating to environmental protection and technological development. Up to date discussion of current issues and scientific controversies Challenges the claim that the 'precautionary principle' is an appropriate guide to public policy decisions

The Price Of Precaution And The Ethics Of Risk

Author: Christian Munthe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400713307
Size: 80.24 MB
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Christian Munthe undertakes an innovative, in-depth philosophical analysis of what the idea of a precautionary principle is and should be about. A novel theory of the ethics of imposing risks is developed and used as a foundation for defending the idea of precaution in environmental and technological policy making against its critics, while at the same time avoiding a number of identified flaws. The theory is shown to have far-reaching practical conclusions for areas such as bio-, information- and nuclear technology, and global environmental policy in areas such as climate change. The author argues that, while the price we pay for precaution must not be too high, we have to be prepared to pay it in order to act ethically defensible. A number of practical suggestions for precautionary regulation and policy making are made on the basis of this, and some challenges to basic ethical theory as well as consumerist societies, the global political order and liberal democracy are identified. Munthe’s book is a well-argued contribution to the PP debate, putting neglected justificatory and methodological questions at the forefront. His many discussions of alternative accounts as well as his drawing out the consequences of his own suggestion in practical cases give the reader a thorough, holistic sense of what justification of PP amounts to. /..../ Munthe’s main case, his argumentation for the requirement of precaution as a moral norm, is convincing and puts a strong pressure on too narrow alternative suggestions on how it should be perceived and justified, and he launches a plausible defence of its practical usability.

The Ethics Of Protocells

Author: Mark A. Bedau
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262292297
Size: 30.10 MB
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Teams of scientists around the world are racing to create protocells--microscopic, self-organizing entities that spontaneously assemble from simple organic and inorganic materials. The creation of fully autonomous protocells--a technology that can, for all intents and purposes, be considered literally alive--is only a matter of time. This book examines the pressing social and ethical issues raised by the creation of life in the laboratory. Protocells might offer great medical and social benefits and vast new economic opportunities, but they also pose potential risks and threaten cultural and moral norms against tampering with nature and "playing God." The Ethics of Protocells offers a variety of perspectives on these concerns. After a brief survey of current protocell research (including the much-publicized "top-down" strategy of J. Craig Venter and Hamilton Smith, for which they have received multimillion dollar financing from the U.S. Department of Energy), the chapters treat risk, uncertainty, and precaution; lessons from recent history and related technologies; and ethics in a future society with protocells. The discussions range from new considerations of the precautionary principle and the role of professional ethicists to explorations of what can be learned from society's experience with other biotechnologies and the open-source software movement. Contributors: Mark A. Bedau, Gaymon Bennett, Giovanni Boniolo, Carl Cranor, Bill Durodié, Mickey Gjerris, Brigitte Hantsche-Tangen, Christine Hauskeller, Andrew Hessel, Brian Johnson, George Khushf, Emily C. Parke, Alain Pottage, Paul Rabinow, Per Sandin, Joachim Schummer, Mark Triant, Laurie Zoloth

The Precautionary Principle International Law And Climate Change

Author: Rabbi Deloso
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3656083975
Size: 17.15 MB
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Master's Thesis from the year 2006 in the subject Environmental Sciences, grade: merit, Lund University (LUMES), language: English, abstract: The precautionary principle is an old concept with a new character. Threats of harm, since the early days of civilization, were confronted by taking some form of precaution. Throughout history, the concept of precaution provided humans with the moral right to avoid potential harm or damage to his health and his environment despite lack of certainty of its occurrence. Today, the precautionary principle is a common legal concept in national and international regulatory policies. In a nutshell, it means that if there is threat or risk of serious or irreversible damage to human health or the environment, precautionary actions must be taken even though there is lack of full certainty surrounding the issue. This paper looks at the concept of precaution in the framework of international law. The precautionary principle is particularly applied in the current global effort to address climate change. Despite many uncertainties about the science and impacts of the global warming phenomenon, leaders of the global community, adopted the precautionary principle, instead of the traditional reactive wait-and-see approach, in the climate regime. Although criticized by many for its shortcomings and its marginal position in the practical sense, this paper looks at the legal validity of the precautionary principle based on its sources, rather than its merits. In other words, this thesis looks at the concept of precaution and examines it in the lens of the contemporary international legal system. The first part of this thesis endeavours to understand better the precautionary principle under international conventional law. Influenced by systems approach, this paper particularly analyzed the principle’s relevance with the climate change issue. Guided by the legal positivist approach, the first part argues that the precautionary principle is a significant doctrine in international conventional law. The thesis also examines the precautionary principle in the context of international customary law. Keywords: precautionary principle, climate change, treaties, uncertainty, customary international law

Precautionary Principle

Author: Indur M. Goklany
Publisher: Cato Institute
ISBN: 1933995858
Size: 23.25 MB
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The "precautionary principle" -- the environmental version of the admonition first, do no harm -- is now enshrined in numerous international environmental agreements including treaties addressing global warming, biological diversity, and various pollutants. Some environmentalists have invoked this principle to justify policies to control, if not ban, any technology that cannot be proven to cause no harm. In this innovative book, Goklany shows that the current use of the precautionary principle to justify such policies is flawed and could be counterproductive because it ignores the possible calamities those very policies might simultaneously create or prolong. The precautionary principle, unfortunately, does not provide any method of resolving such dilemmas, which are commonplace in the field of environmental policy. To address that problem, Goklany develops a framework consistent with the precautionary principle to resolve such dilemmas. That framework ranks potential threats to the environment on the basis of their nature, magnitude, immediacy, uncertainty, persistence, and the extent to which they can be alleviated. Applying that framework to three contentious environmental policy issues facing humanity and the globe -- DDT, bioengineered crops, and global warming -- Goklany shows that some popular policy prescriptions, despite good intentions, are in fact likely to do more harm than good.

Challenging Environmental Mythology

Author: J. W. Dini
Publisher: William Andrew Pub
ISBN: 9781891121296
Size: 12.69 MB
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This book debunks much of the accepted truths about the environment using scientific facts, that are verifiable through current scientific literature. Originally a collection of columns written for "Plating & Surface Finishing Magazine," the writing is often irreverent, but based solely on scientific research from across the globe.

Precautionary Politics

Author: Kerry H. Whiteside
Publisher: Mit Press
ISBN: 9780262232555
Size: 43.45 MB
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A study of the precautionary principle—its meaning, its rationale, its policy implications, and the controversies provoked by its use in environmental regulation.

Sichtbarkeitsregime

Author: Leon Hempel
Publisher: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften
ISBN:
Size: 51.51 MB
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Sicherheits- und Überwachungstechnologien etablieren Sichtbarkeitsregime, die sich ihrerseits der Einsehbarkeit und damit der Kontrolle entziehen. Während Bevölkerung und Individuen in neuer Weise lesbar gemacht werden – als Gefahrenträger, die kontrolliert, als Gefährdete, die geschützt, als Konsumenten, deren Präferenzen erhoben, als Angestellte, deren Leistungen evaluiert werden –, bleibt die gesellschaftliche Funktionalität der Technik zu dechiffrieren. Im Zeichen von Prävention vollzieht sich ein radikaler Innovationsschub, der die Verfasstheit liberaler Gesellschaften in Frage stellt und traditionelle Grenzziehungen auf dem Feld der Sicherheit untergräbt. Kriminalität, Terrorismus, Krieg und Naturkatastrophen werden zu einem Kontinuum der Bedrohung verknüpft. Neben den staatlichen Organen treten private Sicherheitsagenturen, Anwender von Sicherheitstechnologien wie Verkehrsunternehmen, kommerzielle Datensammler und die Think Tanks der Sicherheitsforschung. Der Sonderband nimmt dieses Zusammenspiel von Akteuren, Technologien und strategischen Wirkungen ebenso in den Blick wie die gesellschaftlichen Bewegungen, die Privatheit als Residuum gegen Überwachung und Kontrolle neu entdecken.

The Improving State Of The World

Author: Indur M. Goklany
Publisher: Cato Inst
ISBN:
Size: 26.35 MB
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Relying on a wealth of data, Goklany shows how innovation, increases in affluence, and key institutions have combined to address environmental degradation that sometimes results from growth. The evidence on the use of cropland, trends in air pollution, and diverse experiences in water usage counters the gloomy outlook of some environmentalists. Goklany explains why the state of the world is improving and offers a realistic assessment of the sustainability of the human enterprise, setting priorities for dealing with such challenges as climate change.