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Role Theory

Author: Bruce J. Biddle
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483288137
Size: 53.91 MB
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Role Theory: Expectations, Identities, and Behaviors presents the applications of role concepts for education, social work, and clinical practice. This book examines the advantages as well as the shortcomings of the role stance. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of behaviors that are characteristics of persons within contexts and the various processes that are employed to explain and predict those behaviors. This text then examines the concepts of the role field and discovers their applications to social problems of pressing concern. Other chapters consider the empirical evidence that has been developed within the role orientation concerning social problems. This book discusses as well the behavioral comparability, behavior linkage, behavioral effects, and complex linking concepts for behaviors. The final chapter discusses how contexts may affect the behaviors of persons and how those behaviors may have subsequent functions. This book is a valuable resource for anthropologists, sociologists, and social psychologists.

A Quarter Century Of Normalization And Social Role Valorization

Author: Robert John Flynn
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 0776604856
Size: 41.45 MB
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During the late 1960s, Normalization and Social Role Valorization (SRV) enabled the widespread emergence of community residential options and then provided the philosophical climate within which educational integration, supported employment, and community participation were able to take firm root. This book is unique in tracing the evolution and impact of Normalization and SRV over the last quarter-century, with many of the chapter authors personally involved in a still-evolving international movement.

Management Accounting Practice And Strategic Behavior

Author: Oliver Gediehn
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3834986062
Size: 28.63 MB
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Oliver Gediehn examines the determinants of managerial long-term (growth) orientation. Quantitative evidence casts serious doubts on the existence of a dysfunctional effect between the emphasis on short-term goals and myopic management behavior.

The Unacknowledged Disaster

Author: Bruce J. Biddle
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9462095213
Size: 78.97 MB
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The Unacknowledged Disaster concerns two huge and closely-tied but widely ignored problems that plague the U.S. On the one hand, America tolerates a massive amount of youth poverty, while on the other, youth poverty is the major social factor generating failure in the country’s education. (More than one-fifth of American youths are now impoverished–a poverty rate far worse than those for American adults or the elderly and more than twice the size of youth poverty rates in other advanced nations–and poverty generates most educational failure effects in the U.S. often assigned to such factors as student race, broken homes, and the supposed failures of teachers and school administrators.) These problems have been studied extensively, and the tragedies they create are well known to scholars, but they are often misrepresented, misunderstood, or unacknowledged by far-right advocates, media figures, policy makers, and those concerned with serious problems that now beset the United States. This book reviews evidence concerning these problems and their dire effects, discusses ineffective or tragic outcomes that result when these problems are ignored, assesses why these problems are so often unacknowledged in the United States, and sets forth clear, evidence-based policies that can reduce the disastrous scope of American youth poverty and its destructive effects in education.

Elementarformen Sozialen Verhaltens

Author: George Caspar Homans
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3663023915
Size: 49.89 MB
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Das vorliegende Buch von George C. Romans bedarf keines Vorwortes im üblichen Sinne. Was Homans aussagen will, sagt er selbst: klar, folgerichtig und ausführlich. Es wäre deshalb unerheblich, etwa darstellen zu wollen, ob ich ihn auch richtig ver standen habe. Es wäre auch vermessen, wollte ich das mir Wesentliche aus seinem Buche herausstellen. Ich lehne dies als untunliche Einmischung in seine eigenen exak ten Gedankengänge ab, wie ich auch dem Leser zumute, daß er sich unbeeinflußt seine eigenen Gedanken über die Erklärungsvorschläge von Homans machen wird. Wie in allen Veröffentlichungen von Homans ist nicht nur wesentlich, was er aus sagt, sondern wie und vor allem wo, d. h. in welchem Zusammenhang er selbst seine Erklärungen abgibt. Wie hat sich, so könnten wir uns allerdings fragen, sein wissenschaftstheoretischer Standort seit seinem Buche THE HUMAN GROUP 1 verändert? Viele werfen Homans vor, er sei zu einem "psychologischen Reduktionalisten" geworden. Er ver suche, das Soziale mit psychologischen Erklärungen zu erfassen. Er hätte, welch ein Sakrileg, gegen Durkheim verstoßen, demzufolge das Soziale nur durch Soziales zu erklären sei.

No Sense Of Place

Author: Joshua Meyrowitz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199839212
Size: 12.23 MB
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How have changes in media affected our everyday experience, behavior, and sense of identity? Such questions have generated endless arguments and speculations, but no thinker has addressed the issue with such force and originality as Joshua Meyrowitz in No Sense of Place. Advancing a daring and sophisticated theory, Meyrowitz shows how television and other electronic media have created new social situations that are no longer shaped by where we are or who is "with" us. While other media experts have limited the debate to message content, Meyrowitz focuses on the ways in which changes in media rearrange "who knows what about whom" and "who knows what compared to whom," making it impossible for us to behave with each other in traditional ways. No Sense of Place explains how the electronic landscape has encouraged the development of: -More adultlike children and more childlike adults; -More career-oriented women and more family-oriented men; and -Leaders who try to act more like the "person next door" and real neighbors who want to have a greater say in local, national, and international affairs. The dramatic changes fostered by electronic media, notes Meyrowitz, are neither entirely good nor entirely bad. In some ways, we are returning to older, pre-literate forms of social behavior, becoming "hunters and gatherers of an information age." In other ways, we are rushing forward into a new social world. New media have helped to liberate many people from restrictive, place-defined roles, but the resulting heightened expectations have also led to new social tensions and frustrations. Once taken-for-granted behaviors are now subject to constant debate and negotiation. The book richly explicates the quadruple pun in its title: Changes in media transform how we sense information and how we make sense of our physical and social places in the world.