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Salinity And Tides In Alluvial Estuaries

Author: H.H.G. Savenije
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080461618
Size: 21.22 MB
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The book describes an integrated theory that links estuary shape to tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion. The shape of an alluvial estuary is characterised by exponentially varying width and the absence of bottom slope. This topography is closely related to tidal parameters, hydraulic parameters and parameters that describe 1-dimensional mixing and salt intrusion. Starting from the fundamental equations for conservation of mass and momentum, analytical equations are derived that relate the topography to tidal parameters (tidal excursion, phase lag, tidal damping, tidal amplification), wave celerity, lateral and vertical mixing and salt intrusion. The book presents a review of the state of the art, a comprehensive theoretical background and ample case illustrations from all over the world. It provides tools with which human interference in estuary dynamics can be described and predicted, resulting from, for instance: upstream fresh water abstraction, dredging, climate change or sea-level rise. In describing the interactions between tide, topography, water quality and river discharge, it provides useful information for hydraulic engineers, morphologists, ecologists and people concerned with water quality in alluvial estuaries. Although the book can be used as a text book, it is mainly a monograph aimed at graduate students and researchers. * Provides new integrated theory for tidal hydraulics, tidal mixing and salt intrusion in alluvial estuaries * Presents a consistent set of analytical equations to compute tidal movement, tidal mixing and salt intrusion, derived from the fundamental laws of conservation of mass and momentum * Serves as a practical guide with many illustrations of applications in real estuaries

Modeling Morphodynamic Evolution In Alluvial Estuaries

Author: Mick van der Wegen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203093348
Size: 79.95 MB
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The main objective of this research is to investigate the governing processes and characteristics that drive morphodynamic evolution in alluvial estuaries by application of a process-based numerical model (Delft3D). It is of utmost importance to understand estuarine processes so that impact of human interference (like dredging and land reclamation) and long-term changes (like sea level rise) can be evaluated. The research addresses a number of cases ranging from an rectangular basins to real estuaries like the Western Scheldt in the Netherlands or San Pablo Bay in California. The more schematized approach allow to study morphodynamic evolution over several millennia under constant forcing and answers more fundamental questions related to conditions of equilibrium and related time scales. The more realistic cases give insight into the skill of the approach in predicting decadal morphodynamic developments. More processes are included to mimic realistic conditions and model results are compared to bathymetric measurements over the last century. The research shows that the modeling approach is good capable of describing stable morphodynamic calculations over a timescale of millennia with patterns similar to patterns observed in reality. Additionally, the approach shows that it is possible to predict decadal morphodynamic developments in real estuaries with significant skill.

Oceanography And Marine Biology

Author: R.N. Hughes
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315351560
Size: 58.18 MB
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Ever-increasing interest in oceanography and marine biology and their relevance to global environmental issues create a demand for authoritative reviews summarizing the results of recent research. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review has catered to this demand since its founding by the late Harold Barnes more than 50 years ago. Its objectives are to consider, annually, the basic areas of marine research, returning to them when appropriate in future volumes; to deal with subjects of special and topical importance; and to add new subjects as they arise. The favourable reception and complimentary reviews accorded to all the volumes shows that the series is fulfilling a very real need. Volume 54 follows closely the objectives and style of the earlier volumes, continuing to regard the marine sciences—with all their various aspects—as a unity. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science are dealt with by experts actively engaged in these fields. The series is an essential reference text for researchers and students in all fields of marine science and related subjects, and it finds a place in libraries of universities, marine laboratories, research institutes and government departments. It is consistently among the highest ranking series in terms of impact factor in the marine biology category of the citation indices compiled by the Institute for Scientific Information/Web of Science.

Salt Intrusion Tides And Mixing In Multi Channel Estuaries

Author: Anh Duc Nguyen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439828342
Size: 27.93 MB
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Multi-channel estuaries, such as the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Scheldt in the Netherlands, have characteristics of both the river and the sea, forming a unique environment influenced by tidal movements of the sea and freshwater flow of the river. This study addresses a number of knowledge gaps in multi-channel estuaries by developing a predictive analytical approach for salinity intrusion and discharge estimate in multi-channel estuaries. The new approach agrees well with 1-D hydrodynamic models and observations, indicating its applicability in practice. Most importantly, the study has successfully developed a new theory and a new equation to quantify tidal pumping due to ebb-flood channel residual circulation and the related salt dispersion.

Major Biological Processes In European Tidal Estuaries

Author: C.H.R. Heip
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792336990
Size: 72.21 MB
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This book presents results of the project `Major Biological Processes in European Tidal Estuaries', funded by the Commission of the European Communities under its Marine Science and Technology Programme. This was one of the first projects in which a large number of European macrotidal estuaries, from the Elbe to the Tagus, were studied simultaneously and compared in a coherent way by application of a standardized methodology. It revealed that these estuaries have many species in common and that their ecology can be understood on the basis of a common concept. A major result of the comparison is that, while salinity gradients explain species succession very well within each estuary, similar succession series are found at different salinity levels in different estuaries. Organic loading and the availability of food may explain these differences. Overall, organic loading appears more important in explaining the functioning of tidal estuarine systems than nutrient loading.

Estuarine Morphodynamics Of The Sunderbans

Author: Gautam Kumar Das
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319113437
Size: 15.57 MB
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This book is the outcome of rigorous and continuous research work done by the author over about three decades on the open ecosystem and dynamic environment of the estuarine Sunderbans. The objective of this work is to identify the field and factors changing gradually upon this active delta over the years, decades and centuries. The deltaic Sunderbans yet not mature enough, has been changing in its natural course with time. Further, anthropogenic interferences disturb the environments and accelerate degradation of nature of this fragile ecosystem simultaneously. Roles played by almost all the agents including man and environment and their involvement are identified for the changing environmental scenario of the Sunderbans. The book is befitted for the researchers and students for the post graduate levels. The Sunderbans, a UNESCO World Heritage Site covering parts of Bangladesh and the southern tip of Indian state of West Bengal, is a part of world's largest deltaic plain of fluvio-marine deposit formed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra at the confluence of the Bay of Bengal. It is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world, conspicuous for its great size and biodiversity. With an enormous network of channels and creeks, tidal inundation twice daily, Sunderbans mangroves wetland is a dynamic and complex ecosystem, which undergoes continuous processes of erosion and accretion. Natural processes like changes in local hydrology, sediment motion under wind, wave and tidal action, beach dynamics, regional and global processes like sea level rise as well as the impact of human interference in the form of reclamation of forest land, changes in land use patterns, coastal urbanizations etc are the lead factors for the changes in the environmental scenario of Sunderbans.

Climate Change And Coastal Ecosystems

Author: Robert J. Livingston
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466568437
Size: 20.38 MB
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Produced by a Leading Aquatic Scientist A narrative account of how estuaries around the world are being altered by human forces and human-induced global climate changes, Climate Change and Coastal Ecosystems: Long-Term Effects of Climate and Nutrient Loading on Trophic Organization chronicles a more than 40-year-old research effort conducted by Dr. Robert J. Livingston and his research team at Florida State University. Designed to evaluate system-level responses to natural and anthropogenic nutrient loading and long-term climate changes, the study focused on the northeast Gulf of Mexico river–bay systems, and concentrated on phytoplankton/benthic macrophyte productivity and associated food web organization. It addressed the changes of food web structure relative to long-term trends of climatological conditions, and was carried out using a combination of field-descriptive and experimental approaches. Details Climate Change, Climate Change Effects, and Eutrophication This book includes comparative analyses of how the trophic organization of different river–bay ecosystems responded to variations of both anthropogenic impacts and natural driving factors in space and time. It incorporates a climate database and evaluates the effects of climate change in the region. It also provides insights into the effects of nutrient loading and climate on the trophic organization of coastal systems in other global regions. Presents research compiled from consistent field sampling methods and detailed taxonomic identifications over an extended period of study Includes the methods and materials that the research team used to access the health and trophic organization of Florida’s estuaries Provides an up-to-date bibliography of estuarine publications and reports Based on a longitudinal study of anthropogenic and natural driving factors on river-estuarine systems in the northeast Gulf of Mexico, Climate Change and Coastal Ecosystems: Long-Term Effects of Climate and Nutrient Loading on Trophic Organization is useful as a reference for researchers working on riverine, estuarine, and coastal marine systems.