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Seasonality Rural Livelihoods And Development

Author: Stephen Devereux
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136494391
Size: 23.42 MB
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Seasonality is a severe constraint to sustainable rural livelihoods and a driver of poverty and hunger, particularly in the tropics. Many poor people in developing countries are ill equipped to cope with seasonal variations which can lead to drought or flood and consequences for agriculture, employment, food supply and the spread of disease. The subject has assumed increasing importance as climate change and other forms of development disrupt established seasonal patterns and variations. This book is the first systematic study of seasonality for over twenty years, and it aims to revive academic interest and policy awareness of this crucial but neglected issue. Thematic chapters explore recent shifts with profound implications for seasonality, including climate change, HIV/AIDS, and social protection. Case study chapters explore seasonal dimensions of livelihoods in Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi), Asia (Bangladesh, China, India), and Latin America (Peru). Others assess policy responses to adverse seasonality, for example through irrigation, migration and seasonally-sensitive education. The book also includes innovative tools for monitoring seasonality, which should enable more appropriate responses.

Seasonal Hunger And Public Policies

Author: Shahidur R. Khandker
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821395548
Size: 44.16 MB
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The book provides an exhaustive inquiry of Bangladesh s seasonal hunger with special focus on the northwest region where it is more pronounced than in other areas. It also presents an evaluation of several policy interventions launched recently in mitigating seasonality.

Does Market Access Mitigate The Impact Of Seasonality On Child Growth

Author: Abay, Kibrewossen
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN:
Size: 32.51 MB
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Seasonality in agricultural production continues to shape intra-annual food availability and prices in low-income countries. Using high-frequency panel data from northern Ethiopia, this study attempts to quantify seasonal fluctuations in children's weights. In line with earlier studies, we document considerable seasonality in children’s age and height adjusted weights. While children located closer to local food markets are better nourished compared to their counterparts residing in more remote areas, their weights are also subject to considerable seasonality. Further analysis provides evidence that children located closer to food markets consume more diverse diets than those located farther away. However, the content of these diets varies across seasons: children are less likely to consume animal source foods during the lean season.

Seasonal Hunger And Public Policies

Author: Shahidur R. Khandker
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821395548
Size: 76.22 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 3536
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The book provides an exhaustive inquiry of Bangladesh s seasonal hunger with special focus on the northwest region where it is more pronounced than in other areas. It also presents an evaluation of several policy interventions launched recently in mitigating seasonality.

Food Security Food Prices And Climate Variability

Author: Molly E. Brown
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135096341
Size: 45.35 MB
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The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. This book uses a decade of primary research to examine how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in food-insecure regions of the world. The author reviews environmental, economics and multidisciplinary research to describe the connection between global environmental change, changing weather conditions and local staple food price variability. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation’s World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. These datasets are used to describe the connection, and to demonstrate the importance of these metrics in overall outcomes in food-insecure communities.

Seasonal Migration And Rural Livelihoods In Ethiopia

Author: Woldie Asfaw Abegaz
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
ISBN: 9783838350721
Size: 59.65 MB
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This book aims at examining the opportunities and challenges of seasonal migration of labour on the livelihoods of migrant people in Ethiopia. Seasonal migration of labour in the study area is undertaken by many rural households so as to diversify households' portfolios and reduce risk and vulnerability. The remittances have served rural households to supplement their income from agriculture and alleviate the problem of land shortage. They are positively contributing to the development of the recipient area by supplying cheap labour. On the other hand, they exert pressure on social services in the town and pollute the environment. Shortage of farmland, debt, lack of viable non-farm activities, and the desire to earn additional income so as to supplement agricultural income are the major reasons for seasonal migration of labour. Social networks and information flow are also important factors in migration. Rather than viewing it as a livelihood option of the rural poor which contributes to reducing poverty and improving the livelihoods of the poor, migration is still perceived negatively, and there has been less awareness towards it.

Agricultural Input Subsidies

Author: Ephraim Chirwa
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199683522
Size: 19.34 MB
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This books examines an increasingly popular but controversial set of agricultural development programmes promoting smallholder agriculture and food security in low income countries, particularly in Africa, Drawing on and developing theory on these programmes, and on a wider review of recent experience in Africa, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the historical, political and agro-economic roots and context of Malawi's agricultural programme from 2005 to2011, a large and controversial programme that has been the subject a very considerable but unfortunately little informed international debate. As well as a fascinating account of the history ofdevelopment and current constraints on smallholder farming in Malawi and of the implementation of a large scale national programme, this provides critical insights into the potential benefits and risks with such programmes, and on political and technical issues that are critical in success or failure.

Informal And Formal Social Protection Systems In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: Melese Getu
Publisher: African Books Collective
ISBN: 9970252410
Size: 51.19 MB
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In recent years, social protection issues have gained unprecedented momentum in Africa. This is reflected in the fact that most African countries have either introduced or are considering social protection measures, as witnessed by initiatives within the African Union (AU), African national governments and their development partners in the international donor community. The 2004 'Ouagadougou Declaration and Plan of Action', the 2006 'Livingstone and Yaounde Calls for Action', the 2008 'African Union Social Policy Framework for Africa' and the 2010 'Social Ministers' Khartoum Declaration on Social Policy Action Towards Social Inclusion' are key milestones towards an Africa-wide consensus on the need for social protection. Many national governments are also in the process of establishing social protection strategies and policies. Unfortunately, most of them give little attention to the role or potential of informal social protection systems. This is despite the fact that the rural population and those who are engaged in the informal economy, which together constitute the bulk of these countries' populations, depend on informal social protection systems. The possibility of building on existing informal social protection systems and creating complementary linkages between the formal and informal systems is rarely considered by policy-makers and donor agencies in Africa. Instead, most attention is given to formal safety net programmes. Addressing several themes in the social protection literature, this book makes an original and important contribution to the rapidly growing body of literature on social protection in sub-Saharan Africa. Some of the themes are relatively neglected or under-researched, while some others are not usually conceptualised as social protection. These themes are organised around the major issues: informal social protection, urban social protection, social protection and physical security, social protection in unstable contexts, climate change, pastoralism, and gender. In fact, the most significant challenge this book offers to current thinking and practice is in focusing attention on local or - indigenous' mutual support systems and institutions, sometimes characterised as 'informal' and 'semi-formal' social protection mechanisms, which are undervalued or even neglected in discourses of 'formal' social protection policy-making and programming. From the discussions presented by the different chapters, the book draws the conclusion that although the trend towards institutionalising social protection as a core government responsibility is welcome and should be encouraged, these formal social protection mechanisms could arguably be strengthened if they acknowledge and build on local experiences and cultural norms around reciprocity and mutual support.