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Secrecy And Science

Author: Brian Balmer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317058380
Size: 71.81 MB
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It is no secret that twentieth-century Britain was governed through a culture of secrecy, and secrecy was particularly endemic in military research and defence policy surrounding biological and chemical warfare. More generally, it is hard to exaggerate the role of secrecy in all past biological and chemical warfare programmes and several recent historical surveys of biological and chemical warfare research have emphasised that all state sponsored programmes, together with sub-state organised activities, were cloaked in utmost secrecy. Of these research programmes, Britain carried out one of the most significant in scale and scope in the twentieth century. Yet, partly because of the secrecy surrounding the programme, there is still little academic literature on its historical development. Equally, and despite secrecy being a pervasive feature of past and contemporary societies, social scientists and historians have paid relatively little scholarly attention to the nature, mechanics and effects of secrecy, particularly with regard to secrecy in relation to the production and governance of science and technology. Drawing on classical sociological writing on secrecy by Simmel, Merton and Shils this groundbreaking book by Brian Balmer draws on recently declassified documents to investigate significant episodes in the history of biological and chemical warfare. At the same time, it draws on more contemporary perspectives in science and technology studies that understand knowledge and social order as co-produced within heterogeneous networks of 'things and people' in order to develop a theoretical set of arguments about how the relationship between secrecy and science might be understood.

Biological Threats In The 21st Century

Author: Filippa Lentzos
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783269499
Size: 61.34 MB
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Biological Threats in the 21st Century offers a fresh understanding of contemporary biological threats to national security. Readers are introduced to the politics, people, science and historical roots of contemporary biological threats through up-to-date, rigorous and accessible chapters written by leading academics and supplemented by expert point-of-view contributions and interviews. The book provides inspiration and resources for students and researchers, as well as policy makers in government, the public policy sector and the wider community. It is particularly pertinent for those interested in biological disarmament, non-proliferation, counterterrorism and health security. Contents:Editor's Introduction: The Politics, People, Science and Historical Roots (Filippa Lentzos)Crossing the Normative Barrier: Japan's Biological Warfare in China in World War II (Jeanne Guillemin)Past Proliferators:The British, United States and Canadian Biological Warfare Programs (Brian Balmer & John Ellis van Courtland Moon)Point of View: Open-Air Biowarfare Testing: American and British Experiences (Leonard A Cole)The Soviet Biological Warfare Program (Jens H Kuhn & Milton Leitenberg)Point of View: Life Inside the Soviet Bioweapons Program (Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley)The Iraqi Biological Warfare Program (Tim Trevan)Point of View: Hunting Saddam's Biological Weapons: A First-Hand Account (Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack)The South African Biological Warfare Program (Alastair Hay)Point of View: Open Secrets: 'Truth Telling' and Transitional Justice in Revealing Biowarfare Programs (Chandré Gould)Bioweapons in Today's Context :RISE, the Rajneeshees, Aum Shinrikyo and Bruce Ivins (W Seth Carus)Point of View: Inside the Mind of a Bioterrorist (Toby Ewin)Aftershocks of the 2001 Anthrax Attacks (Kathleen M Vogel)Point of View: The Threat of Misuse (Gigi Kwik Gronvall)Searching for Cures or Creating Pandemics in the Lab? (Nancy D Connell & Brian Rappert)Point of View: Dangerous Life Sciences Research (David R Franz)Ebola: From Public Health Crisis to National Security Threat (Nicholas G Evans)Point of View: Building a Sustainable Biodefense Industry (Jacob Thorup Cohn)Quandaries in Contemporary Biodefense Research (Gregory D Koblentz)Disarmament and Non-Proliferation:The Traditional Tools of Biological Arms Control and Disarmament (Marie Isabelle Chevrier & Alex Spelling)Witness Seminar: Origins of the Biological Weapons Convention (Jeanne Guillemin, Matthew Meselson, Julian Perry Robinson & Nicholas Sims)Interview: Unconventional Weapons and Activist Scientists (Steven Rose & Filippa Lentzos)Point of View: Responsible Science: Strategies for Engaging Key Stakeholders (Jo L Husbands)Interview: International Security and Counter-Terrorism (Trevor Smith & Filippa Lentzos)Point of View: The Front Lines of Biological Weapons Non-Proliferation (Melissa Finley & Jennifer Gaudioso)Roundtable: The Future of Biothreat Governance (Iris Hunger, Jez Littlewood, Caitriona McLeish, Piers Millett & Ralf Trapp) Readership: Students and researchers, as well as policy makers in government, the public policy sector and the wider community. It is particularly pertinent for those interested in biological disarmament, non-proliferation, counterterrorism and health security.

Absence In Science Security And Policy

Author: Brian Balmer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137493739
Size: 22.44 MB
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This book explores the absent and missing in debates about science and security. Through varied case studies, including biological and chemical weapons control, science journalism, nanotechnology research and neuroethics, the contributors explore how matters become absent, ignored or forgotten and the implications for ethics, policy and society.

Dis Eases Of Secrecy

Author: B. RAPPERT
ISBN: 9781431424856
Size: 59.97 MB
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"Dis-eases demonstrates how oppressive pasts can be engaged imaginatively rather than didactically. It is a seminal work for anyone committed to making 'post-apartheid' meaningful." - Verne Harris, Director: Archive and Dialogue, Nelson Mandela Foundation Between 1981 and 1995, a top-secret chemical and biological warfare program titled Project Coast was established and maintained by South Africa's apartheid government. Under the leadership of Wouter Basson, Project Coast scientists were involved in a number of dubious activities, including the mass production of ecstasy, the development of covert assassination weapons and the manufacture of chemical poisons designed to be undetectable post-mortem. Dis-eases of Secrecy is a retrospective analysis of Project Coast and shows how South African governments (past and present) have chosen to deal with the issues of biochemical weapons and warfare. It investigates possibilities for understanding the world of politics by examining how Project Coast has been remembered - and, in some instances, forgotten - by African and international governments. Through their first-hand involvement in the investigation spanning over 20 years, the authors examine how the continuing silences, impunities and stories surrounding Project Coast are still relevant for political accountability today. Readers will engage with how what is hidden reveals, and what is revealed hides. In this cleverly constructed book, readers are able to choose their own journey through the story. By taking on the role of investigator, readers are faced with the complexities of transitional justice, reconciliation and scientist developments that might give them a different view of South African politics in an ever-changing world order.

Biological Weapons

Author: Jeanne Guillemin
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231129432
Size: 73.36 MB
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A timely account of how resources for biological weapons programs were mobilized and why such weapons have never been deployed in major conflicts offers an understanding of the relevance of the historical restraints placed on the use of biological weapons and looks at what can to done to prevent their proliferation in the post-September 11th world.

Behind The Fog

Author: Lisa Martino-Taylor
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315295199
Size: 14.90 MB
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Behind the Fog is the first in-depth, comprehensive examination of the United States’ Cold War radiological weapons program. The book examines controversial military-sponsored studies and field trials using radioactive "simulants" that exposed American civilians to radiation and other hazardous substances without their knowledge or consent during the Cold War. Although Western biological and chemical weapons programs have been analyzed by a number of scholars, Behind the Fog is a strong departure from the rest in that the United States radiological weapons program has been generally unknown to the public. Martino-Taylor documents the coordinated efforts of a small group of military scientists who advanced a four-pronged secret program of human-subject radiation studies that targeted unsuspecting Americans for Cold War military purposes. Officials enabled such projects to advance through the layering of secrecy, by embedding classified studies in other studies, and through outright deception. Agency and academic partnerships advanced, supported, and concealed the studies from the public at large who ultimately served as unwitting test subjects. Martino-Taylor’s comprehensive research illuminates a dark chapter of government secrecy, the military-industrial-academic complex, and large-scale organizational deviance in American history. In its critical approach, Behind the Fog effectively examines the mechanisms that allow large-scale elite deviance to take place in modern society.

Spores Plagues And History

Author: Chris Holmes
Publisher: Chris Holmes
ISBN: 9781930754454
Size: 55.38 MB
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This is much more than the story of a microbe. It is the tale of history and prophecy woven into a fabric what was, what might have been and what might yet be...

A Web Of Prevention

Author: Brian Rappert
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849770352
Size: 18.90 MB
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Web of Preventionprovides a timely contribution to the current debate about life science research and its implications for security. It is an informative guide for both experts and the public. It is a forward-looking contribution covering both ends of the equation and creates momentum for the current discussion on effective preventive measures and effective control measures. While there are no guarantees for preventing misuse, there are nonetheless crucial steps the world community can take towards the overarching goal of a global network for the life sciences. This book sheds light on concrete steps toward the achievement of this worthy goal. "This book with its collection of essays provides an in-depth analysis of the various mutually reinforcing elements that together create and strengthen a web of prevention - or of assurance - that is vital to ensure that the advances in the life sciences are not misused to cause harm. All those engaged in the life sciences and in policy making in governments around the world should read this book so they can take steps to strengthen the web preventing biological weapons". From the Foreword by Dr Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack, Chief, Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch, Office for Disarmament Affairs, United Nations. "Since September 11, 2001 in many countries renewed attention has been given to how research in the life sciences might inadvertently or intentionally facilitate the development of biological or chemical weapons. This state-of-the-art volume examines the full extent of the issues and debates. Coverage includes an overview of recent scientific achievements in virology, microbiology, immunology and genetic engineering with a view to asking how they might facilitate the production of weapons of mass destruction by state, sub-state or terrorist organizations. Consideration is given to what we have and haven't learned from the past. Employing both academic analysis and reflections by practitioners, the book examines the security-inspired governance regimes for the life sciences that are under development. Ultimately the authors examine what is required to form a comprehensive and workable web of prevention and highlight the importance of encouraging discussions between scientists, policy makers and others regarding the governance of vital but potentially dangerous research". Dr Graham S. Pearson, Visiting Professor of International Security, University of Bradford, UK and previously Director-General, Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, UK

Clouds Of Secrecy

Author: Leonard A. Cole
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780822630012
Size: 52.13 MB
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Assesses the risks of the Army's biological warfare program, discusses uses of germ warfare in Afghanistan by the Soviet Union, and examines the ethics of such weapons.