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Seismic Wave Propagation In The Earth

Author: A. Hanyga
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291847
Size: 12.57 MB
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This volume contains an extensive presentation of the theory, phenomenology and interpretation of seismic waves produced by natural and artificial sources. Each theoretical topic discussed in the book is presented in a self-contained and mathematically rigorous form, yet without excessive demands on the reader's mathematical background. It is the only book to include such a complete presentation of the mathematical background and modern developments of the WKBJ theory of seismic waves, and detailed discussions of its wide ranging applications. The book will therefore be useful to postgraduate students and research workers specialising in seismic wave theory, theoretical seismology, electromagnetic wave theory and other fields of wave propagation theory.

Earthquake Thermodynamics And Phase Transformation In The Earth S Interior

Author: Roman Teisseyre
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080530659
Size: 31.36 MB
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A group of distinguished scientists contributes to the foundations of a new discipline in Earth sciences: earthquake thermodynamics and thermodynamics of formation of the Earth's interior structures. The predictive powers of thermodynamics are so great that those aspiring to model earthquake and the Earth's interior will certainly wish to be able to use the theory. Thermodynamics is our only method of understanding and predicting the behavior of many environmental, atmospheric, and geological processes. The need for Earth scientists to develop a functional knowledge of thermodynamic concepts and methodology is therefore urgent. Sources of an entropy increase the dissipative and self-organizing systems driving the evolution and dynamics of the Universe and Earth through irreversible processes. The non-linear interactions lead to the formation of fractal structures. From the structural phase transformations the important interior boundaries emerge. Non-linear interactions between the defects in solids lead the authors to develop the physics of continua with a dense distribution of defects. Disclinations and dislocations interact during a slow evolution as well as during rapid dynamic events, like earthquakes. Splitting the dynamic processes into the 2D fault done and 3D surrounding space brings a new tool for describing the slip nucleation and propagation along the earthquake faults. Seismic efficiency, rupture velocity, and complexity of seismic source zone are considered from different points of view, fracture band earthquake model is developed on the basis of thermodynamics of line defects, like dislocations. Earthquake thermodynamics offers us a microscopic model of earthquake sources. Physics of defects helps the authors decscribe and explain a number of precursory phenomena caused by the buildup of stresses. Anomalies in electric polarization and electromagnetic radiation prior to earthquakes are considered from this point of view. Through the thermodynamic approach, the authors arrive at the fascinating question of posssibility of earthquake prediction. In general, the Earth is considered here as a multicomponent system. Transport phenomena as well as wave propagation and shock waves are considered in this system subjected also to chemical and phase transformations.

Dynamics Of The Earth S Evolution

Author: Roman Teisseyre
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291596
Size: 61.82 MB
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This sixth volume in the monograph series Physics and Evolution of the Earth's Interior presents the problems of the mature evolution of the Earth's interior. It provides comprehensive coverage of the present state of the mantle convection theory. The relations between paleomagnetism, plate tectonics and mantle convection theory are discussed. A more general view of the evolution based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes is also given. This book will interest geophysicists, geologists, geodesists and planetologists.

Constitution Of The Earth S Interior

Author: J. Leliwa-Kopystynski
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291855
Size: 23.94 MB
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Constitution of the Earth's Interior discusses the physical and evolutionary principles connecting various elements of the knowledge about structure and dynamics of the Earth's interior. This work is divided into eight chapters that primarily focus on the physical, chemical, and petrological state. This text contains general data on a general stationary model, which is described by equations of state combining the basic parameters, including pressure, temperature, density, gravity acceleration, and mineral composition within the Earth's interior. Considerable chapters concern the chemical and petrological composition of the matter in the Earth's interior. The remaining chapters describe models containing inhomogeneities used to illustrate processes connected with phase transitions. This book will be of great value to geologists, physicists, and researchers.

Gravity And Low Frequency Geodynamics

Author: Roman Teisseyre
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291804
Size: 78.49 MB
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This fourth volume in the series Physics and Evolution of the Earth's Interior, provides a comprehensive review of the geophysical and geodetical aspects related to gravity and low-frequency geodynamics. Such aspects include the Earth's gravity field, geoid shape theory, and low-frequency phenomena like rotation, oscillations and tides. Global-scale phenomena are treated as a response to source excitation in spherical Earth models consisting of several shells: lithosphere, mantle, core and sometimes also the inner solid core. The effect of gravitation and rotation on the Earth's shape is analysed. The satellite approach to studies of the gravity field and the geoid shape is discussed in some detail. Discussions of recent findings and developments are accompanied by a brief historical background.

Physics And Chemistry Of The Earth S Interior

Author: Alok Krishna Gupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441903461
Size: 34.35 MB
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The Indian National Science Academy was established in January 1935 with the objective of promoting science in India and harnessing scientific knowledge for the cause of humanity and national welfare. In 1968 it was designated as the adhering organisation in India to the International Council for Scientific Union (ICSU) on behalf of the Government of India. Over the years, the Academy has published a number of journals, volumes, biographical memoirs, etc. The year 2009–2010 will be specially celebrated to mark the Platinum Jubilee of the Academy. Many programmes are planned in different centres in India on this occasion. In addition, the Academy has decided to publish a number of special volumes on different s- jects ranging from earth sciences to life sciences. This volume is on Physics and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior. One of the main objectives of geophysicists is to establish the internal structure of the earth as revealed by seismic tomography. It is also their primary goal to correlate geophy- cal data to reveal thermal and chemical state of the crust, mantle and core of the earth. In - der to interpret seismic velocities and associated density and elastic properties in terms of mineralogical and petrological models of the earth’s interior, thermodynamic and hi- pressure temperature data from mineral physics are essential. With the advent of different types of multi-anvil and laser-heated diamond anvil equipment, it is now possible to simulate conditions prevalent even in the lower mantle and core of the earth.

Physics Of The Solar System

Author: B. Bertotti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402014284
Size: 69.19 MB
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This volume covers most areas in the physics of the solar system, with special emphasis on gravitational dynamics; its gist is the rational, in particular mathematical, understanding of the main processes at work. Special stress is given to the variety of objects in the planetary system and their long-term evolution. The unique character of this book is its breadth and depth, which aims at bringing the reader to the threshold of original research; however, special chapters and introductory sections are included for the benefit of the beginner. The volume is generally suitable for post-graduate students and researchers in physics, especially in the field related to the solar system. A large amount of figures and diagrams is included, often compiled with real data.