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Selected Topics In High Temperature Chemistry

Author: Ø. Johannesen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291014
Size: 16.51 MB
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The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several materials. Defects in solids lead to transport properties such as diffusion and conductivity. These themes are thoroughly treated in this book, with examples from various materials being provided. Special attention is paid to the transport properties of grain boundaries. In high temperature corrosion and other types of oxidation, the diffusion of atoms through the reaction products is often the rate limiting step of the reaction. This book takes the reader from the theoretical treatment of defects to applications in high temperature corrosion. Reactions between metals and pure oxygen lead to the formation of oxides on the surface, and the reaction rates may often be related to the diffusion coefficients of the oxide. However, in practical use alloys are subjected to other severe gaseous atmospheres which may often lead to accelerated attack on the material. The severest condition, namely where a salt deposit is combined with oxidizing gases, is called hot corrosion. This and other types of corrosion are also covered. Finally, a chapter is devoted to the prevention of corrosive attack on materials by the addition of rare earth metals. The book has been published in honour of Professor Per Kofstad on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Professor Kofstad has for many years been active in the field of high temperature chemistry in all its aspects, from basic and theoretical work to its application in high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys. The various chapters have been contributed by his friends and colleagues, all of whom are international experts in the field.

Luminescence And The Solid State

Author: Richard C. Ropp
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080473239
Size: 17.51 MB
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Since the first date of publication of this book in 1991, the subject of phosphors and luminescence has assumed even more importance in the overall scheme of technological development. Many new types of displays have appeared which depend upon phosphors in their operation. Some of these were pure conjecture in 1991 but are a reality in 2004. Descriptions have been included of the newer (as well as the older) types of displays in this edition along with an annotated portrait of the phosphors used in each category. Many of these new light sources promise to displace and make obsolete our current light sources, such as incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and the ubiquitous colour Cathode Ray Tube now used in TV and computer monitors. The importance of solid state science are summarized in the introductory chapters of this edition, and many of the chapters have been completely rewritten or revised. Each chapter has a special contribution to make in the overall understanding of the solid state science of phosphors and luminescence. - Introduces the reader to the science and art of preparing inorganic luminescent materials. - Describes how and why luminescent materials exhibit such specific intrinsic properties. - Describes the science of the solid state and presents the exact formulas and conditions required to make all of the phosphors known at that time.

Physical Chemical Mechanics Of Disperse Systems And Materials

Author: Eugene D. Shchukin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466567104
Size: 50.90 MB
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Physical–Chemical Mechanics of Disperse Systems and Materials is a novel interdisciplinary area in the science of the disperse state of matter. It covers the broad spectrum of objects and systems with dimensions ranging from nanometers to millimeters and establishes a fundamental basis for controlling and tuning the properties of these systems as well as the processes taking place in them. Physical–chemical mechanics focuses on the analysis of the complex physical–chemical interfacial phenomena taking place both in the transition of a dispersed system into a material, such as in the course of pressing, sintering, hydration hardening, and sol-gel transitions, and in the course of the dispersion of bulk materials taking place in milling, mechanical treatment, friction and wear, and fracturing. These studies are based on thorough experimental investigation of contact interactions between particles in these processes. The book is divided into two sections. The first section covers basic principles of the formation, stability and rupture of contacts between particles in different media and in surfactant solutions, as well as the properties of coagulation structures and their rheology. The second section covers surface phenomena taking place in solid-like structures with phase contacts and in compact bodies with an emphasis on several applications and processes as well as the special role of the Rehbinder effect. Where appropriate and relevant, the book presents essays on specific significant and principal studies, such as the damageability of crystal and glass surfaces, the strength of industrial catalysts, the nano-mechanisms of cement hardening, the role of the structure-mechanical barrier in the stabilization of fluorinated systems, and contact interactions in papermaking. It also devotes attention to experimental methods used in physical–chemical mechanics, the direct measurement of contact strength, and relevant instrumentations. The book utilizes the content used over many years in lecture courses and includes fundamental material on colloid and surface chemistry, the strength of materials, rheology, and tensors, which makes it well suited for novices and experts in the field.

The Chemistry Of Inorganic Ring Systems

Author: R. Steudel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291154
Size: 11.95 MB
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The present volume considers the most recent developments in the chemistry of cyclic inorganic and organoelement compounds. Nineteen of the 22 chapters are based on invited and other lectures presented at the 6th International Symposium on Inorganic Ring Systems held in Berlin on August 18-22, 1991. Main group compounds dominate the content from boron via carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, nitrogen, phosphorus and arsenic, to sulfur and selenium. The book is organized by element, moving from left to right in the main groups of the Periodic Table, followed by one chapter each on bonding and nomenclature of ring molecules. The list of contributors comprises distinguished scientists from 8 countries.

Developments In High Temperature Corrosion And Protection Of Materials

Author: W Gao
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845694252
Size: 42.89 MB
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High temperature corrosion is a phenomenon that occurs in components that operate at very high temperatures, such as gas turbines, jet engines and industrial plants. Engineers are constantly striving to understand and prevent this type of corrosion. This book examines the latest developments in the understanding of high temperature corrosion processes and protective oxide scales and coatings. Part one looks at high temperature corrosion. Chapters cover diffusion and solid state reactions, external and internal oxidation of alloys, metal dusting corrosion, tribological degradation, hot corrosion, and oxide scales on hot-rolled steel strips. Modern techniques for analysing high temperature oxidation and corrosion are also discussed. Part two discusses methods of protection using ceramics, composites, protective oxide scales and coatings. Chapters focus on layered ternary ceramics, alumina scales, Ti-Al intermetallic compounds, metal matrix composites, chemical vapour deposited silicon carbide, nanocrystalline coatings and thermal barrier coatings. Part three provides case studies illustrating some of the challenges of high temperature corrosion to industry and how they can be overcome. Case studies include the petrochemical industry, modern incinerators and oxidation processing of electronic materials. This book is a valuable reference tool for engineers who develop heat resistant materials, mechanical engineers who design and maintain high temperature equipment and plant, and research scientists and students who study high temperature corrosion and protection of materials. Describes the latest developments in understanding high temperature corrosion Presents the latest research by the leading innovators from around the globe Case studies are provided to illustrate key points

Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry

Author: Ruren Xu
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444635955
Size: 70.65 MB
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Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry, Second Edition captures, in five distinct sections, the latest advancements in inorganic synthetic chemistry, providing materials chemists, chemical engineers, and materials scientists with a valuable reference source to help them advance their research efforts and achieve breakthroughs. Section one includes six chapters centering on synthetic chemistry under specific conditions, such as high-temperature, low-temperature and cryogenic, hydrothermal and solvothermal, high-pressure, photochemical and fusion conditions. Section two focuses on the synthesis and related chemistry problems of highly distinct categories of inorganic compounds, including superheavy elements, coordination compounds and coordination polymers, cluster compounds, organometallic compounds, inorganic polymers, and nonstoichiometric compounds. Section three elaborates on the synthetic chemistry of five important classes of inorganic functional materials, namely, ordered porous materials, carbon materials, advanced ceramic materials, host-guest materials, and hierarchically structured materials. Section four consists of four chapters where the synthesis of functional inorganic aggregates is discussed, giving special attention to the growth of single crystals, assembly of nanomaterials, and preparation of amorphous materials and membranes. The new edition’s biggest highlight is Section five where the frontier in inorganic synthetic chemistry is reviewed by focusing on biomimetic synthesis and rationally designed synthesis. Focuses on the chemistry of inorganic synthesis, assembly, and organization of wide-ranging inorganic systems Covers all major methodologies of inorganic synthesis Provides state-of-the-art synthetic methods Includes real examples in the organization of complex inorganic functional materials Contains more than 4000 references that are all highly reflective of the latest advancement in inorganic synthetic chemistry Presents a comprehensive coverage of the key issues involved in modern inorganic synthetic chemistry as written by experts in the field

Phosphorus

Author: D. E. C. Corbridge
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN:
Size: 23.39 MB
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This latest edition extends the coverage of the 1985 edition which was described as ...a remarkably comprehensive and well-refined survey of all aspects of the chemistry of phosphorus.''(Journal of Applied Crystallography). Since then, the importance and relevance of phosphorus compounds has continued to increase over ever-widening fields of science and technology. The aims of this greatly expanded fourth edition remain the same: to deal with the basic material and to highlight more recent advances. The book has been extensively revised and much of the material which has been added is from the literature covering the period from mid-1984 to mid-1989. There is no other book with such a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the whole realm of phosphorus chemistry. It is an ideal starting point for anyone entering the field and wishing to acquire a specialised knowledge of the subject. Like its predecessors, it continues to be invaluable as a source book for post-graduate specialised courses.

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Of D Transition Metal Compounds

Author: F. E. Mabbs
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN:
Size: 31.38 MB
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Electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) spectroscopy is a sensitive and versatile method of studying paramagnets, which is finding increasing use in chemistry, biochemistry, earth and materials sciences. The technique is treated both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a progressive increase in sophistication in each succeeding chapter. Following a general introductory chapter, the first half of the book deals with single unpaired electron systems and considers both metal and ligand Zeeman, hyperfine and quadrupole interactions. The simulation of these spectra is discussed, followed by the relationship between spin-Hamiltonian parameters and models of the electronic structures of paramagnets. The second half of the book treats multiple unpaired electron systems using the same philosophy. An introduction to the epr properties of cluster compounds and of extended exchanging systems is also given. There is a chapter on linewidths and lineshapes, and an extensive appendix containing much additional information. A wide-ranging library of simulated and experimental spectra is given, as well as graphical data which should aid spectrum interpretation. Each chapter contains key references and there is a substantial subject and keyword index. This book is designed to teach epr spectroscopy to students without any previous knowledge of the technique. However, it will also be extremely useful to researchers dealing with paramagnetic d transition metals.

The Chemistry Of Artificial Lighting Devices

Author: R. C. Ropp
Publisher: Elsevier Science
ISBN: 9780444817099
Size: 41.12 MB
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Both the early use of artificial lighting and current manufacturing methods concerning incandescent and fluorescent lamps are covered in this book. The protocols for manufacture of fluorescent lamp phosphors and those used in cathode ray tubes are also treated in some detail. This text surveys the amazing, vast array of artificial lighting devices known to date in terms of how they arose and are, or have been used by mankind. A complete description of the formulations and methodology for manufacturing all known phosphors is given. The book will serve as a repository of such phosphor manufacturing methods, including that of cathode ray tube phosphors. Methods of manufacture of lamp parts are also presented, including that of tungsten wire. The original approaches used are described as well as improvements in technology. These will serve as comparative methods for present day manufacture of these components. A history of the lamp industry is presented. Several methods are given which may serve as a source for further work in the lamp industry. Some of the earliest work has been applied in the laser industry to develop new types of discharge lasers. These include nitrogen-gas lasers and the rare gas (excimer) lasers. Previous work on lamps may also be applied in the development of new types of lasers.