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Selected Topics In High Temperature Chemistry

Author: Ø. Johannesen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291014
Size: 31.51 MB
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The properties of materials at high temperature play a vital role in their processing and practical use. The real properties of materials at elevated temperatures are very often governed by defects in their structure. Lattice defects may consist of point defects like vacancies, interstitial atoms or substituted atoms. These classes are discussed in general and specifically for oxides, nitrides, carbides and sulfides. Defect aggregates, shear structures and adaptive structures are also described. Special attention is paid to hydrogen defects which seem to play an important role in several materials. Defects in solids lead to transport properties such as diffusion and conductivity. These themes are thoroughly treated in this book, with examples from various materials being provided. Special attention is paid to the transport properties of grain boundaries. In high temperature corrosion and other types of oxidation, the diffusion of atoms through the reaction products is often the rate limiting step of the reaction. This book takes the reader from the theoretical treatment of defects to applications in high temperature corrosion. Reactions between metals and pure oxygen lead to the formation of oxides on the surface, and the reaction rates may often be related to the diffusion coefficients of the oxide. However, in practical use alloys are subjected to other severe gaseous atmospheres which may often lead to accelerated attack on the material. The severest condition, namely where a salt deposit is combined with oxidizing gases, is called hot corrosion. This and other types of corrosion are also covered. Finally, a chapter is devoted to the prevention of corrosive attack on materials by the addition of rare earth metals. The book has been published in honour of Professor Per Kofstad on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Professor Kofstad has for many years been active in the field of high temperature chemistry in all its aspects, from basic and theoretical work to its application in high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys. The various chapters have been contributed by his friends and colleagues, all of whom are international experts in the field.

Luminescence And The Solid State

Author: Richard C. Ropp
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080473239
Size: 24.78 MB
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Since the first date of publication of this book in 1991, the subject of phosphors and luminescence has assumed even more importance in the overall scheme of technological development. Many new types of displays have appeared which depend upon phosphors in their operation. Some of these were pure conjecture in 1991 but are a reality in 2004. Descriptions have been included of the newer (as well as the older) types of displays in this edition along with an annotated portrait of the phosphors used in each category. Many of these new light sources promise to displace and make obsolete our current light sources, such as incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and the ubiquitous colour Cathode Ray Tube now used in TV and computer monitors. The importance of solid state science are summarized in the introductory chapters of this edition, and many of the chapters have been completely rewritten or revised. Each chapter has a special contribution to make in the overall understanding of the solid state science of phosphors and luminescence. - Introduces the reader to the science and art of preparing inorganic luminescent materials. - Describes how and why luminescent materials exhibit such specific intrinsic properties. - Describes the science of the solid state and presents the exact formulas and conditions required to make all of the phosphors known at that time.

Physical Chemical Mechanics Of Disperse Systems And Materials

Author: Eugene D. Shchukin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466567104
Size: 39.15 MB
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Physical–Chemical Mechanics of Disperse Systems and Materials is a novel interdisciplinary area in the science of the disperse state of matter. It covers the broad spectrum of objects and systems with dimensions ranging from nanometers to millimeters and establishes a fundamental basis for controlling and tuning the properties of these systems as well as the processes taking place in them. Physical–chemical mechanics focuses on the analysis of the complex physical–chemical interfacial phenomena taking place both in the transition of a dispersed system into a material, such as in the course of pressing, sintering, hydration hardening, and sol-gel transitions, and in the course of the dispersion of bulk materials taking place in milling, mechanical treatment, friction and wear, and fracturing. These studies are based on thorough experimental investigation of contact interactions between particles in these processes. The book is divided into two sections. The first section covers basic principles of the formation, stability and rupture of contacts between particles in different media and in surfactant solutions, as well as the properties of coagulation structures and their rheology. The second section covers surface phenomena taking place in solid-like structures with phase contacts and in compact bodies with an emphasis on several applications and processes as well as the special role of the Rehbinder effect. Where appropriate and relevant, the book presents essays on specific significant and principal studies, such as the damageability of crystal and glass surfaces, the strength of industrial catalysts, the nano-mechanisms of cement hardening, the role of the structure-mechanical barrier in the stabilization of fluorinated systems, and contact interactions in papermaking. It also devotes attention to experimental methods used in physical–chemical mechanics, the direct measurement of contact strength, and relevant instrumentations. The book utilizes the content used over many years in lecture courses and includes fundamental material on colloid and surface chemistry, the strength of materials, rheology, and tensors, which makes it well suited for novices and experts in the field.

The Chemistry Of Inorganic Ring Systems

Author: R. Steudel
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291154
Size: 21.39 MB
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The present volume considers the most recent developments in the chemistry of cyclic inorganic and organoelement compounds. Nineteen of the 22 chapters are based on invited and other lectures presented at the 6th International Symposium on Inorganic Ring Systems held in Berlin on August 18-22, 1991. Main group compounds dominate the content from boron via carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, nitrogen, phosphorus and arsenic, to sulfur and selenium. The book is organized by element, moving from left to right in the main groups of the Periodic Table, followed by one chapter each on bonding and nomenclature of ring molecules. The list of contributors comprises distinguished scientists from 8 countries.

Contemporary Aspects Of Boron Chemistry And Biological Applications

Author: Hijazi Abu Ali
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080457734
Size: 31.73 MB
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Contemporary Aspects of Boron: Chemistry and Biological Applications highlights the biological activity and applications of boron containing compounds. The authors’ specific approach surveys general features of the subject, while exploring new and novel strategies for preparing certain chemical and natural boron products that are of significant substance in medicinal chemistry. For example, cancer treatment is one of the most important issues related to such products. In addition to contributing to the development of new drugs by addressing biological applications in medicinal and industrial fields, the book provides a comprehensive review of the most relevant components that comprise the pharmaceutical, medicinal and environmental applications of boron containing compounds. * Timely and comprehensive * Provides new insights to active researchers in the field * Presents concepts and methods in simple scientific terms

Phosphorus

Author: D. E. C. Corbridge
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN:
Size: 41.54 MB
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This latest edition extends the coverage of the 1985 edition which was described as ...a remarkably comprehensive and well-refined survey of all aspects of the chemistry of phosphorus.''(Journal of Applied Crystallography). Since then, the importance and relevance of phosphorus compounds has continued to increase over ever-widening fields of science and technology. The aims of this greatly expanded fourth edition remain the same: to deal with the basic material and to highlight more recent advances. The book has been extensively revised and much of the material which has been added is from the literature covering the period from mid-1984 to mid-1989. There is no other book with such a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the whole realm of phosphorus chemistry. It is an ideal starting point for anyone entering the field and wishing to acquire a specialised knowledge of the subject. Like its predecessors, it continues to be invaluable as a source book for post-graduate specialised courses.

The Chemistry Of Artificial Lighting Devices

Author: R. C. Ropp
Publisher: Elsevier Science
ISBN: 9780444817099
Size: 56.78 MB
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Both the early use of artificial lighting and current manufacturing methods concerning incandescent and fluorescent lamps are covered in this book. The protocols for manufacture of fluorescent lamp phosphors and those used in cathode ray tubes are also treated in some detail. This text surveys the amazing, vast array of artificial lighting devices known to date in terms of how they arose and are, or have been used by mankind. A complete description of the formulations and methodology for manufacturing all known phosphors is given. The book will serve as a repository of such phosphor manufacturing methods, including that of cathode ray tube phosphors. Methods of manufacture of lamp parts are also presented, including that of tungsten wire. The original approaches used are described as well as improvements in technology. These will serve as comparative methods for present day manufacture of these components. A history of the lamp industry is presented. Several methods are given which may serve as a source for further work in the lamp industry. Some of the earliest work has been applied in the laser industry to develop new types of discharge lasers. These include nitrogen-gas lasers and the rare gas (excimer) lasers. Previous work on lamps may also be applied in the development of new types of lasers.

Molybdenum

Author: Eric Reeves Braithwaite
Publisher: Elsevier Science
ISBN:
Size: 14.25 MB
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Molybdenum is an element with an extremely rich and interesting chemistry having very versatile applications in various fields of human activity. It is used extensively in metallurgical applications. Because of their anti-wear properties, molybdenum compounds find wide applications as lubricants - particularly in extreme or hostile environmental situations. Many molybdates and heteropolymolybdates are white and therefore used as pigments. In addition, they are non-toxic and act as efficient corrosion inhibitors and smoke suppressants. Hydroprocessing of petroleum is one of the largest industries employing heterogeneous catalysts. Molybdenum catalysts have shown great promise in the liquefaction of coal and this may develop into one of its most important catalytic uses. The use of molybdenum compounds in homogeneous catalysis is also significant.Three important classes of molybdenum compounds in the solid state are reviewed, viz., oxides, sulphides and halides. The role of molybdenum in inorganic catalysis and enzymes receives prominent mention because of their impact on the progress of science and technology. Further biochemical and enzymic factors are discussed in separate chapters and their reaction to agriculture and animal husbandry.A new classification of covalent compounds which abandons the traditional oxidation state concept allows a powerful approach to the organisation of the complex and rich chemistry of molybdenum. Dramatic colour diagrams of abundances of molybdenum compounds provide broad insights into the important features and trends in the chemistry of molybdenum including reactivity and mechanism.The book is intended for use mainly as a research monograph by the many workers who may encounter molybdenum chemistry or who are looking for its application and potential uses in different technological fields. However, it will also serve as an advanced text for university lecturers and postgraduate students interested in inorganic, physical and industrial chemistry, chemical technology or biochemistry and biotechnology.