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Self Organization In Complex Ecosystems Mpb 42

Author: Ricard V. Solé
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140084293X
Size: 57.63 MB
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Can physics be an appropriate framework for the understanding of ecological science? Most ecologists would probably agree that there is little relation between the complexity of natural ecosystems and the simplicity of any example derived from Newtonian physics. Though ecologists have long been interested in concepts originally developed by statistical physicists and later applied to explain everything from why stock markets crash to why rivers develop particular branching patterns, applying such concepts to ecosystems has remained a challenge. Self-Organization in Complex Ecosystems is the first book to clearly synthesize what we have learned about the usefulness of tools from statistical physics in ecology. Ricard Solé and Jordi Bascompte provide a comprehensive introduction to complex systems theory, and ask: do universal laws shape the structure of ecosystems, at least at some scales? They offer the most compelling array of theoretical evidence to date of the potential of nonlinear ecological interactions to generate nonrandom, self-organized patterns at all levels. Tackling classic ecological questions--from population dynamics to biodiversity to macroevolution--the book's novel presentation of theories and data shows the power of statistical physics and complexity in ecology. Self-Organization in Complex Ecosystems will be a staple resource for years to come for ecologists interested in complex systems theory as well as mathematicians and physicists interested in ecology.

Multicellularity

Author: Karl J. Niklas
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262034158
Size: 38.63 MB
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Scholars consider the origins and consequences of the evolution of multicellularity, addressing a range of organisms, experimental protocols, theoretical concepts, and philosophical issues.

Mutualistic Networks

Author: Jordi Bascompte
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400848725
Size: 11.45 MB
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Mutualistic interactions among plants and animals have played a paramount role in shaping biodiversity. Yet the majority of studies on mutualistic interactions have involved only a few species, as opposed to broader mutual connections between communities of organisms. Mutualistic Networks is the first book to comprehensively explore this burgeoning field. Integrating different approaches, from the statistical description of network structures to the development of new analytical frameworks, Jordi Bascompte and Pedro Jordano describe the architecture of these mutualistic networks and show their importance for the robustness of biodiversity and the coevolutionary process. Making a case for why we should care about mutualisms and their complex networks, this book offers a new perspective on the study and synthesis of this growing area for ecologists and evolutionary biologists. It will serve as the standard reference for all future work on mutualistic interactions in biological communities.

Critical Transitions In Nature And Society

Author: Marten Scheffer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691122045
Size: 33.65 MB
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"Offers an introduction to critical transitions in complex systems - the radical changes that happen at tipping points when thresholds are passed. This title describes the dynamical systems theory behind critical transitions, covering catastrophe theory, bifurcations and chaos." -- BOOK PUBLISHER WEBSITE.

Lattice Gas Cellular Automata And Lattice Boltzmann Models

Author: Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540669739
Size: 65.37 MB
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Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.

Resolving Ecosystem Complexity Mpb 47

Author: Oswald J. Schmitz
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400834174
Size: 59.63 MB
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An ecosystem's complexity develops from the vast numbers of species interacting in ecological communities. The nature of these interactions, in turn, depends on environmental context. How do these components together influence an ecosystem's behavior as a whole? Can ecologists resolve an ecosystem's complexity in order to predict its response to disturbances? Resolving Ecosystem Complexity develops a framework for anticipating the ways environmental context determines the functioning of ecosystems. Oswald Schmitz addresses the critical questions of contemporary ecology: How should an ecosystem be conceptualized to blend its biotic and biophysical components? How should evolutionary ecological principles be used to derive an operational understanding of complex, adaptive ecosystems? How should the relationship between the functional biotic diversity of ecosystems and their properties be understood? Schmitz begins with the universal concept that ecosystems are comprised of species that consume resources and which are then resources for other consumers. From this, he deduces a fundamental rule or evolutionary ecological mechanism for explaining context dependency: individuals within a species trade off foraging gains against the risk of being consumed by predators. Through empirical examples, Schmitz illustrates how species use evolutionary ecological strategies to negotiate a predator-eat-predator world, and he suggests that the implications of species trade-offs are critical to making ecology a predictive science. Bridging the traditional divides between individuals, populations, and communities in ecology, Resolving Ecosystem Complexity builds a systematic foundation for thinking about natural systems.

Frontiers In Ecology Evolution And Complexity

Author: Mariana Benítez
Publisher: CopIt ArXives
ISBN: 1938128052
Size: 50.10 MB
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Advances in molecular biology, remote sensing, systems biology, bioinformatics, non-linear science, the physics of complex systems and other fields have rendered a great amount of data that remain to be integrated into models and theories that are capable of accounting for the complexity of ecological systems and the evolutionary dynamics of life. It is thus necessary to provide a solid basis to discuss and reflect on these and other challenges both at the local and global scales. This volume aims to delineate an integrative and interdisciplinary view that suggests new avenues in research and teaching, critically discusses the scope of the diverse methods in the study of complex systems, and points at key open questions. Finally, this book will provide students and specialists with a collection of high quality open access essays that will contribute to integrate Ecology, Evolution and Complexity in the context of basic research and in the field of Sustainability Sciences.

Ecosystem Services Biodiversity And Environmental Change In A Tropical Mountain Ecosystem Of South Ecuador

Author: Jörg Bendix
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642381375
Size: 65.47 MB
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An interdisciplinary research unit consisting of 30 teams in the natural, economic and social sciences analyzed biodiversity and ecosystem services of a mountain rainforest ecosystem in the hotspot of the tropical Andes, with special reference to past, current and future environmental changes. The group assessed ecosystem services using data from ecological field and scenario-driven model experiments, and with the help of comparative field surveys of the natural forest and its anthropogenic replacement system for agriculture. The book offers insights into the impacts of environmental change on various service categories mentioned in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): cultural, regulating, supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Examples focus on biodiversity of plants and animals including trophic networks, and abiotic/biotic parameters such as soils, regional climate, water, nutrient and sediment cycles. The types of threats considered include land use and climate changes, as well as atmospheric fertilization. In terms of regulating and provisioning services, the emphasis is primarily on water regulation and supply as well as climate regulation and carbon sequestration. With regard to provisioning services, the synthesis of the book provides science-based recommendations for a sustainable land use portfolio including several options such as forestry, pasture management and the practices of indigenous peoples. In closing, the authors show how they integrated the local society by pursuing capacity building in compliance with the CBD-ABS (Convention on Biological Diversity - Access and Benefit Sharing), in the form of education and knowledge transfer for application.