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Semantics Primes And Universals

Author: Anna Wierzbicka
Publisher: Oxford University Press, UK
ISBN: 0191588598
Size: 53.66 MB
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This book provides a synthesis of Wierzbicka's theory of meaning, which is based on conceptual primitives and semantic universals, using empirical findings from a wide range of languages. While addressed primarily to linguists, the book deals with highly topical and controversial issues of central importance to several disciplines, including anthropology, psychology, and philosophy. - ;Conceptual primitives and semantic universals are the cornerstones of a semantic theory which Anna Wierzbicka has been developing for many years. Semantics: Primes and Universals is a major synthesis of her work, presenting a full and systematic exposition of that theory in a non-technical and readable way. It delineates a full set of universal concepts, as they have emerged from large-scale investigations across a wide range of languages undertaken by the author and her colleagues. On the basis of empirical cross-linguistic studies it vindicates the old notion of the 'psychic unity of mankind', while at the same time offering a framework for the rigorous description of different languages and cultures. - ;A major synthesis of Anna Wierzbicka's work -

Semantic Primes And Universal Grammar

Author: Bert Peeters
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027293279
Size: 20.89 MB
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This volume is part of a research program which started with the publication, in 1972, of Anna Wierzbicka’s groundbreaking work on Semantic Primitives. The first within the program to focus on a number of typologically similar languages, it proposes a French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian version of the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) elaborated over the years by Wierzbicka and colleagues. Repetition is avoided through teamwork: a number of authors working on the languages under examination have had equal input in a set of five papers dealing with distinct parts of the metalanguage. Some of the findings presented here invite us to have a fresh look at what has already been achieved, and to amend some of the working hypotheses of the NSM approach accordingly. The volume also contains six case studies (on Italian sfogarsi, Portuguese saudades, Spanish crisis, French certes, Spanish expressions of sincerity and Italian and Spanish diminutives, respectively).

Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words

Author: Anna Wierzbicka
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195358490
Size: 79.60 MB
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This book develops the dual themes that languages can differ widely in their vocabularies, and are also sensitive indices to the cultures to which they belong. Wierzbicka seeks to demonstrate that every language has "key concepts," expressed in "key words," which reflect the core values of a given culture. She shows that cultures can be revealingly studied, compared, and explained to outsiders through their key concepts, and that the analytical framework necessary for this purpose is provided by the "natural semantic metalanguage," based on lexical universals, that the author and colleagues have developed on the basis of wide-ranging cross-linguistic investigations. Appealing to anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers as well as linguists, this book demonstrates that cultural patterns can be studied in a verifiable, rigorous, and non-speculative way, on the basis of empirical evidence and in a coherent theoretical framework.

Basic Color Terms

Author: Brent Berlin
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520076358
Size: 39.17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Explores the psychophysical and neurophysical determinants of cross-linguistic constraints on the shape of color lexicons.

From Polysemy To Semantic Change

Author: Martine Vanhove
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027205736
Size: 50.46 MB
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This book is the result of a joint project on lexical and semantic typology which gathered together field linguists, semanticists, cognitivists, typologists, and an NLP specialist. These cross-linguistic studies concern semantic shifts at large, both synchronic and diachronic: the outcome of polysemy, heterosemy, or semantic change at the lexical level. The first part presents a comprehensive state of the art of a domain typologists have long been reluctant to deal with. Part two focuses on theoretical and methodological approaches: cognition, construction grammar, graph theory, semantic maps, and data bases. These studies deal with universals and variation across languages, illustrated with numerous examples from different semantic domains and different languages. Part three is dedicated to detailed empirical studies of a large sample of languages in a limited set of semantic fields. It reveals possible universals of semantic association, as well as areal and cultural tendencies.

Semantics Culture And Cognition

Author: Anna Wierzbicka
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195073266
Size: 24.14 MB
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To what extent are languages 'essentially the same'? Is every word in our language translatable into every other language or are some of our words and concepts 'culture specific'? In this innovative study, Wierzbicka ranges across a wide variety of languages and cultures, attempting to identify concepts which are truly universal, while at the same time arguing that every language constitutes a different 'guide to reality'. The lexicons of different languages, she shows, do indeed suggest different conceptual universes. Not everything that can be said in one language can be said in another, and this is not just a matter of certain things being easier to say in one language than in another. In the development of her argument, Wierzbicka focuses on the words for emotion, moral concepts, names, and titles.

Yearbook Of Corpus Linguistics And Pragmatics 2013

Author: Jesús Romero-Trillo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940076250X
Size: 66.35 MB
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The Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2013 discusses current methodological debates on the synergy of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics research. The volume presents insightful pragmatic analyses of corpora in new technological domains and devotes some chapters to the pragmatic description of spoken corpora from various theoretical traditions. The Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics series will give readers insight into how pragmatics can be used to explain real corpus data, and, in addition, how corpora can explain pragmatic intuitions, and from there, develop and refine theory. Corpus Linguistics can offer a meticulous methodology based on mathematics and statistics, while Pragmatics is characterized by its efforts to interpret intended meaning in real language. This yearbook offers a platform to scholars who combine both research methodologies to present rigorous and interdisciplinary findings about language in real use.

Core Concepts In Data Analysis Summarization Correlation And Visualization

Author: Boris Mirkin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857292872
Size: 18.15 MB
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Core Concepts in Data Analysis: Summarization, Correlation and Visualization provides in-depth descriptions of those data analysis approaches that either summarize data (principal component analysis and clustering, including hierarchical and network clustering) or correlate different aspects of data (decision trees, linear rules, neuron networks, and Bayes rule). Boris Mirkin takes an unconventional approach and introduces the concept of multivariate data summarization as a counterpart to conventional machine learning prediction schemes, utilizing techniques from statistics, data analysis, data mining, machine learning, computational intelligence, and information retrieval. Innovations following from his in-depth analysis of the models underlying summarization techniques are introduced, and applied to challenging issues such as the number of clusters, mixed scale data standardization, interpretation of the solutions, as well as relations between seemingly unrelated concepts: goodness-of-fit functions for classification trees and data standardization, spectral clustering and additive clustering, correlation and visualization of contingency data. The mathematical detail is encapsulated in the so-called “formulation” parts, whereas most material is delivered through “presentation” parts that explain the methods by applying them to small real-world data sets; concise “computation” parts inform of the algorithmic and coding issues. Four layers of active learning and self-study exercises are provided: worked examples, case studies, projects and questions.

Language Universals And Linguistic Typology

Author: Bernard Comrie
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226114330
Size: 65.68 MB
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Since its first publication, Language Universals and Linguistic Typology has become established as the leading introductory account of one of the most productive areas of linguistics—the analysis, comparison, and classification of the common features and forms of the organization of languages. Adopting an approach to the subject pioneered by Greenberg and others, Bernard Comrie is particularly concerned with syntactico-semantic universals, devoting chapters to word order, case making, relative clauses, and causative constructions. His book is informed throughout by the conviction that an exemplary account of universal properties of human language cannot restrict itself to purely formal aspects, nor focus on analysis of a single language. Rather, it must also consider language use, relate formal properties to testable claims about cognition and cognitive development, and treat data from a wide range of languages. This second edition has been revised and updated to take full account of new research in universals and typology in the past decade, and more generally to consider how the approach advocated here relates to recent advances in generative grammatical theory.