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Semiconductor X Ray Detectors

Author: B. G. Lowe
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466554010
Size: 69.13 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detectors, an important supplement to the knowledge now required to achieve full understanding of the workings of SDDs, CCDs, and Compound Semiconductor Detectors. The book provides an up-to-date review of the principles, practical applications, and state of the art of semiconductor x-ray detectors. It describes many of the facets of x-ray detection and measurement using semiconductors, from manufacture to implementation. The initial chapters present a self-contained summary of relevant background physics, materials science, and engineering aspects. Later chapters compare and contrast the assembly and physical properties of systems and materials currently employed, enabling readers to fully understand the materials and scope for applications.

Sensors For Safety And Process Control In Hydrogen Technologies

Author: Thomas Hübert
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466596554
Size: 48.28 MB
Format: PDF
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Understand, Select, and Design Sensors for Hydrogen-Based Applications The use of hydrogen generated from renewable energy sources is expected to become an essential component of a low-carbon, environmentally friendly energy supply, spurring the worldwide development of hydrogen technologies. Sensors for Safety and Process Control in Hydrogen Technologies provides practical, expert-driven information on modern sensors for hydrogen and other gases as well as physical parameters essential for safety and process control in hydrogen technologies. It illustrates how sensing technologies can ensure the safe and efficient implementation of the emerging global hydrogen market. The book explains the various facets of sensor technologies, including practical aspects relevant in hydrogen technologies. It presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the theory (physical and chemical principles), design, and implementations of sensors in hydrogen technologies. The authors also offer guidance on the development of new sensors based on the analysis of the capabilities and limitations of existing sensors with respect to current performance requirements. Suitable for both technical and non-technical personnel, the book provides a balance between detailed descriptions and simple explanations. It gives invaluable insight into the role sensors play as key enabling devices for both control and safety in established and emerging hydrogen technologies.

A Hands On Course In Sensors Using The Arduino And Raspberry Pi

Author: Volker Ziemann
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351188291
Size: 34.42 MB
Format: PDF
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A Hands-On Course in Sensors using the Arduino and Raspberry Pi is the first book to give a practical and wide-ranging account of how to interface sensors and actuators with micro-controllers, Raspberry Pi and other control systems. The author describes the progression of raw signals through conditioning stages, digitization, data storage and presentation. The collection, processing, and understanding of sensor data plays a central role in industrial and scientific activities. This book builds simplified models of large industrial or scientific installations that contain hardware and other building blocks, including services for databases, web servers, control systems, and messaging brokers. A range of case studies are included within the book, including a weather station, geophones, a water-colour monitor, capacitance measurement, the profile of laser beam, and a remote-controlled and fire-seeking robot This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students taking hands-on laboratory courses in physics and engineering. Hobbyists in robotics clubs and other enthusiasts will also find this book of interest.

Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

Author: Alan Owens
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1439873135
Size: 23.14 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolution of germanium by a factor of three. However, while compound semiconductors are routinely used at infrared and optical wavelengths, their development in other wavebands has been plagued by material and fabrication problems. So far, only a few have evolved sufficiently to produce commercial detection systems. From Crystal Growth to Spectroscopic Performance Bringing together information scattered across many disciplines, this book summarizes the current status of research in compound semiconductor radiation detectors. It examines the properties, growth, and characterization of compound semiconductors as well as the fabrication of radiation sensors, with particular emphasis on the X- and gamma-ray regimes. It explores the limitations of compound semiconductors and discusses current efforts to improve spectral performances, pointing to where future discoveries may lie. A timely resource for the established researcher, this book serves as a comprehensive and illustrated reference on material science, crystal growth, metrology, detector physics, and spectroscopy. It can also be used as a textbook for those new to the field of compound semiconductors and their application to radiation detection and measurement.

Solid State Radiation Detectors

Author: Salah Awadalla
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482262215
Size: 80.20 MB
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Integrating aspects of engineering, application physics, and medical science, Solid-State Radiation Detectors: Technology and Applications offers a comprehensive review of new and emerging solid-state materials-based technologies for radiation detection. Each chapter is structured to address the current advantages and challenges of each material and technology presented, as well as to discuss novel research and applications. Featuring contributions from leading experts in industry and academia, this authoritative text: Covers modern semiconductors used for radiation monitoring Examines CdZnTe and CdTe technology for imaging applications including three-dimensional capability detectors Highlights interconnect technology for current pixel detectors Describes hybrid pixel detectors and their characterizations Tackles the integrated analog signal processing read-out front ends for particle detectors Considers new organic materials with direct bandgap for direct energy detection Summarizes recent developments involving lanthanum halide and cerium bromide scintillators Analyzes the potential of recent progress in the field of crystallogenesis, quantum dots, and photonics crystals toward a new concept of x- and gamma-ray detectors based on metamaterials Explores position-sensitivity photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers for scintillation crystals Solid-State Radiation Detectors: Technology and Applications provides a valuable reference for engineers and scientists looking to enhance the performance of radiation detector technology for medical imaging and other applications.

Evolution Of Silicon Sensor Technology In Particle Physics

Author: Frank Hartmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540250948
Size: 66.16 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the post era of the Z and W discovery, after the observation of Jets at UA1 and UA2 at CERN, John Ellis visioned at a HEP conference at Lake Tahoe, California in 1983 “To proceed with high energy particle physics, one has to tag the avour of the quarks!” This statement re ects the need for a highly precise tracking device, being able to resolve secondary and tertiary vertices within high-particle densities. Since the d- tance between the primary interaction point and the secondary vertex is proportional tothelifetimeoftheparticipatingparticle,itisanexcellentquantitytoidentifypar- cle avour in a very fast and precise way. In colliding beam experiments this method was applied especially to tag the presence of b quarks within particle jets. It was rst introduced in the DELPHI experiment at LEP but soon followed by all collider - periments to date. The long expected t quark discovery was possible mainly with the help of the CDF silicon vertex tracker, providing the b quark information. In the beginning of the 21st century the new LHC experiments are beginning to take 2 shape. CMS with its 206m of silicon area is perfectly suited to cope with the high luminosity environment. Even larger detectors are envisioned for the far future, like the SiLC project for the International Linear Collider. Silicon sensors matured from small 1in. single-sided devices to large 6in. double-sided, double metal detectors and to 6in. single-sided radiation hard sensors.