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Settlement And Subsistence In Early Formative Soconusco

Author: Richard G. Lesure
Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
ISBN: 9781931745796
Size: 23.59 MB
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The Soconusco region, a narrow strip of the Pacific coast of Mexico and Guatemala, is the location of some of the earliest pottery-using villages of ancient Mesoamerica. Mobile early inhabitants of the area harvested marsh clams in the estuaries, leaving behind vast mounds of shell. With the introduction of pottery and the establishment of permanent villages (from 1900 B.C.), use of the resource-rich estuary changed. The archaeological manifestation of that new estuary adaptation is a dramatic pattern of inter-site variability in pottery vessel forms. Vessels at sites within the estuary were about seventy percent neckless jars -- "tecomates" -- while vessels at contemporaneous sites a few kilometers inland were seventy percent open dishes. The pattern is well-known, but the the settlement arrangements or subsistence practices that produced it have remained unclear. Archaeological investigations at El Varal, a special-purpose estuary site of the later Early Formative (1250-1000 B.C.) expand possibilities for an anthropological understanding of the archaeological patterns. The goal of this volume is to describe excavations and finds at the site and to propose, based on a variety of analyses, a new understanding of Early Formative assemblage variability.

Early Mesoamerican Social Transformations

Author: Richard G. Lesure
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520268997
Size: 47.58 MB
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"Data and interpretations generated from the Soconusco are critical but often fail to inform larger debates in Mesoamerica as frequently as they should. This book remedies that situation; it will be of interest to all Mesoamericanists who work on the Archaic and Formative periods."--Jeffrey P. Blomster, editor of After Monte Alban: Transformation and Negotiation in Oaxaca, Mexico "This volume will be crucial to our understanding of the origins of civilization in Mesoamerica. Its interpretations are innovative and present a wealth of new research on an early time period from a very important region. Its importance cannot be underestimated."--Terry G. Powis, Department of Anthropology, Kennesaw State University

Interpreting Ancient Figurines

Author: Richard G. Lesure
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139496158
Size: 33.56 MB
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This book examines ancient figurines from several world areas to address recurring challenges in the interpretation of prehistoric art. Sometimes figurines from one context are perceived to resemble those from another. Richard G. Lesure asks whether such resemblances play a role in our interpretations. Early interpreters seized on the idea that figurines were recurringly female and constructed the fanciful myth of a primordial Neolithic Goddess. Contemporary practice instead rejects interpretive leaps across contexts. Dr Lesure offers a middle path: a new framework for assessing the relevance of particular comparisons. He develops the argument in case studies that consider figurines from Paleolithic Europe, the Neolithic Near East and Formative Mesoamerica.

From Foraging To Farming In The Andes

Author: Tom D. Dillehay
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139495631
Size: 18.43 MB
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Archeologists have always considered the beginnings of Andean civilization from c.13,000 to 6,000 years ago to be important in terms of the appearance of domesticated plants and animals, social differentiation, and a sedentary lifestyle, but there is more to this period than just these developments. During this period, the spread of crop production and other technologies, kinship-based labor projects, mound-building, and population aggregation formed ever-changing conditions across the Andes. From Foraging to Farming in the Andes proposes a new and more complex model for understanding the transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation. It argues that such developments evolved regionally, were fluid and uneven, and were subject to reversal. This book develops these arguments from a large body of archaeological evidence, collected over 30 years in two valleys in northern Peru, and then places the valleys in the context of recent scholarship studying similar developments around the world.

Palaces And Power In The Americas

Author: Jessica Joyce Christie
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292782616
Size: 34.79 MB
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Ancient American palaces still captivate those who stand before them. Even in their fallen and ruined condition, the palaces project such power that, according to the editors of this new collection, it must have been deliberately drawn into their formal designs, spatial layouts, and choice of locations. Such messages separated palaces from other elite architecture and reinforced the power and privilege of those residing in them. Indeed, as Christie and Sarro write, "the relation between political power and architecture is a pervasive and intriguing theme in the Americas." Given the variety of cultures, time periods, and geographical locations examined within, the editors of this book have grouped the articles into four sections. The first looks at palaces in cultures where they have not previously been identified, including the Huaca of Moche Site, the Wari of Peru, and Chaco Canyon in the U.S. Southwest. The second section discusses palaces as "stage sets" that express power, such as those found among the Maya, among the Coast Salish of the Pacific Northwest, and at El Tajín on the Mexican Gulf Coast. The third part of the volume presents cases in which differences in elite residences imply differences in social status, with examples from Pasado de la Amada, the Valley of Oaxaca, Teotihuacan, and the Aztecs. The final section compares architectural strategies between cultures; the models here are Farfán, Peru, under both the Chimú and the Inka, and the separate states of the Maya and the Inka. Such scope, and the quality of the scholarship, make Palaces and Power in the Americas a must-have work on the subject.

The Early Olmec And Mesoamerica

Author: Jeffrey P. Blomster
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316943062
Size: 60.97 MB
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The Early Formative Olmec are central in a wide variety of debates regarding the development of Mesoamerican societies. A fundamental issue in Olmec archaeology is the nature of interregional interaction among contemporaneous societies and the possible Olmec role in it. Previous debates have often not been informed by recent research and data, often relying on materials lacking archaeological context. In order to approach these issues from new perspectives, this book introduces readers to the full spectrum of the material culture of the Olmec and their contemporaries, relying primarily on archaeological data, much of which has not been previously published. For the first time, using a standard lexicon to consider the nature of the interaction among Early Formative societies, the authors, experts in diverse regions of Mesoamerican art and archaeology, provide carefully considered contrasts and comparisons that advance the understanding of the Early Formative origins of social complexity in Mesoamerica.

The Offerings Of The Templo Mayor Of Tenochtitlan

Author: Leonardo López Luján
Publisher: UNM Press
ISBN: 9780826329585
Size: 11.20 MB
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Between 1325 and 1521, the Mexica people of the Aztec capital ritually buried hundreds of offerings to their gods in the depths of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan, where for more than five hundred years these gifts lay undiscovered. In complex religious ceremonies, sacred messages to the gods were expressed not only through these objects but through their exact and symbolic placement as well. In this revised edition ofThe Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan, Leonardo López Luján shares and synthesizes the spectacular findings of the historic Templo Mayor Project, which took place in the heart of Mexico City from 1978 to 1997. Archaeologists found an astonishing array of items including masks, jewelry, skeletal remains of jaguars and alligators, statues of gods, precious stones, human remains, and countless objects from the oceans. López Luján's aim was to decipher the offerings' religious significance and explain the profound associations between the unearthed materials and ritual behavior. In doing so he relied on diverse data and several analytical techniques to determine such things as the exact date when the offerings were buried, the gods to whom they were dedicated, the festivals in which the gifts were made, and the meanings of the materials and their spatial distribution. The first edition ofThe Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlanwas named "Outstanding Academic Book" byChoiceand received the Eugene M. Kayden Humanities Award.

Biological Diversity

Author: Anne E. Magurran
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199580669
Size: 71.73 MB
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This research level text provides an up-to-date, authoritative review of the methods of measuring biological diversity, as well as the application of these methods.

Primeros Memoriales

Author: Bernardino de Sahagún
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 9780806129099
Size: 11.44 MB
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Primeros Memoriales is here published for the first time in its entirety both in the original Nahuatl and in English translation. The volume follows the manuscript order reconstructed for the Primeros Memoriales by Francisco del Paso y Troncoso in his 1905-1907 facsimile edition of the collection of Sahaguntine manuscripts he called Codices Matritenses. During the 1960s, Thelma D. Sullivan, a Nahuatl scholar living in Mexico, began a paleographic transcription of the Primeros Memoriales, along with an English translation. After Sullivan's death in 1981, a group of her colleagues finished, enlarged, and annotated her project. This long-awaited publication makes available to specialists and interested laypersons alike an invaluable portion of the remarkable Sahaguntine treasure of information on sixteenth-century Aztec society.