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Shadow Education

Author: Mark Bray
Publisher: Asian Development Bank
ISBN: 9290926597
Size: 41.56 MB
Format: PDF
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In all parts of Asia, households devote considerable expenditures to private supplementary tutoring. This tutoring may contribute to students' achievement, but it also maintains and exacerbates social inequalities, diverts resources from other uses, and can contribute to inefficiencies in education systems. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education, because it mimics school systems. As the curriculum in the school system changes, so does the shadow. This study documents the scale and nature of shadow education in different parts of the region. Shadow education has been a major phenomenon in East Asia and it has far-reaching economic and social implications.

Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring

Author: Mark Bray
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319300423
Size: 12.63 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education because of the way that it mimics mainstream schooling, has greatly expanded worldwide. It consumes considerable family resources, provides employment for tutors, occupies the time of students, and has a backwash on regular schools. Although such tutoring has become a major industry and a daily activity for students, tutors and families, the research literature has been slow to catch up with the phenomenon. The topic is in some respects difficult to research, precisely because it is shadowy. Contours are indistinct, and the actors may hesitate to share their experiences and perspectives. Presenting methodological lessons from diverse cultures, the book contains chapters from both high-income and low-income settings in Asia, Caribbean, Europe and the Middle East. Separately and together, the chapters present valuable insights into the design and conduct of research. The book will assist both consumers and producers of research. Consumers will become better judges of the strengths, weaknesses and orientations of literature on the theme; and producers will gain insights for design of instruments, collection of data, and interpretation of findings. The editors: Mark Bray is UNESCO Chair Professor in Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong. Ora Kwo is an Associate Professor in the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong. Boris Jokić is a Scientific Associate in the Centre for Educational Research and Development at the Institute for Social Research in Zagreb, Croatia.

Oecd Reviews Of Integrity In Education Ukraine 2017

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264270663
Size: 48.97 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Education in Ukraine is marked by integrity violations from early childhood education and care through postgraduate study. In the past decade policy makers and civic organisations have made progress in addressing these challenges. However, much remains to be done.

Comparative Education Research

Author: Mark Bray
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319055941
Size: 44.35 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Approaches and methods in comparative education are of obvious importance, but do not always receive adequate attention. This second edition of a well-received book, containing thoroughly updated and additional material, contributes new insights within the longstanding traditions of the field. A particular feature is the focus on different units of analysis. Individual chapters compare places, systems, times, cultures, values, policies, curricula and other units. These chapters are contextualised within broader analytical frameworks which identify the purposes and strengths of the field. The book includes a focus on intra-national as well as cross-national comparisons, and highlights the value of approaching themes from different angles. As already demonstrated by the first edition of the book, the work will be of great value not only to producers of comparative education research but also to users who wish to understand more thoroughly the parameters and value of the field.

Transcontinental Strategies For Industrial Development And Economic Growth

Author: Christiansen, Bryan
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522521615
Size: 64.89 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In contemporary society, it is vital for countries to consistently seek new ways to provide stable growth for their increasing populations. As such, it is important to stay on top of the most current strategies and trends that promote strong industrial and economic development. Transcontinental Strategies for Industrial Development and Economic Growth provides a comprehensive examination of the latest strategies and techniques for growing and maintaining an economically-sound community. Highlighting innovative research on relevant topics such as budget preparation processes, management philosophies, and global competitiveness, this publication is an ideal resource for all professionals, practitioners, business owners, and researchers who are seeking advanced academic perspectives on strategies for industrial development and economic growth.

Educational Reforms In Russia And China At The Turn Of The 21st Century

Author: V. P. Borisenkov
Publisher: Hong Kong University Press
ISBN: 9789881785244
Size: 37.63 MB
Format: PDF
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This important study of educational reform in Russia and China brings to the global research community in comparative education a detailed and thoughtful analysis of the parallel yet divergent educational policies and developments in the two societies over the past 25 years. The intent of the study is both academic and ameliorative - scholars from both countries who contributed to the volume are interested in what can be learned from the experiences of the other, and in understanding more generally the common and divergent patterns of educational transition. Striking comparisons between two societies come up in the dialogues on many related themes. Differences between the "shock therapy" approach to political change in Russia and the gradual change of the Chinese communist system, and their respective educational implications, constitute a central feature of the analysis in this volume. "Borevskaya's carefully argued summary knits together many of the broad arguments that run through the volume as a whole, while at the same time bringing in nuances and questions that reveal an extraordinary grasp of historical context in the tensions she identifies among three core models in both societies: 'an outdated purely state model, a market oriented educational model, ... and a culture oriented educational model which is congruent with the Chinese and Russian educational traditions, as well as with global tendencies toward humanization'." -- Ruth Hayhoe, Comparative Education Review

Educational Innovations Beyond Technology

Author: Nancy Law
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387711485
Size: 55.74 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The text explores the concept of innovation, and analyse and compare different dimensions of innovation found in the various case studies; the transfer of innovation and the mechanisms of change; on an innovative online case study database on education innovations that has been designed to be used by education practitioners to support organizational leadership, international collaboration and reflective practice in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) eEducation Leadership initiative; on a project aimed to support the establishment of communities of practice for education practitioners facilitated through an extendable online database that can be used to contribute and share case studies of their own ICT-supported pedagogical innovations. It discusses roles of the teacher and the anticipated changes to the education profession at a system level, in the coming decade on the basis of emerging changes observed in the case studies, and leadership issues at the school level. The book analyses change mechanisms for different kinds of innovation and how different contextual and cultural factors interact to bring about the changes observed.

The Shadow Education System

Author: Mark Bray
Publisher: UNESCO
ISBN: 9789280313055
Size: 42.60 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Because of its size in a number of countries, and due to it nature--that of a private service oriented at improving academic performance--private tutoring has important implications for the educational system as a whole that cannot be ignored by educational policies. This publication contributes to the debate about private tutoring through its systematization of available information and its analysis. It asks the questions: "Who supplies and demands this service?" "What effects does it have on the formal education system?" and "What are the policy options facing education planners?" The research draws on existing research conducted in different parts of the world, but primarily in Asia, where private tutoring is particularly widespread.--Publisher's description.

Higher Education In The Asia Pacific

Author: Simon Marginson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400715004
Size: 53.68 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This survey provides unprecedented scope and detail of analysis on higher education in the Asia-Pacific region. In this era of global integration, convergence and comparison, the balance of power in worldwide higher education is shifting. In less than two decades the Asia-Pacific region has come to possess the largest and fastest growing higher education sector on Earth. The countries of East and Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific together enrol 50 million tertiary students, compared to 14 million in 1991, and will soon conduct a third of all research and development. In China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea and Singapore, ‘world-class’ universities are emerging at breakneck pace, fostered by modernizing governments that see knowledge and skills as key to a future shaped equally by East and West, and supported by families deeply committed to education. But not all Asia-Pacific countries are on this path, not all reforms are effective, and there are marked differences between nations in levels of resources, educational participation, research, state controls and academic freedom. Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Strategic responses to globalization provides an authoritative survey of tertiary education in this diverse and dynamic region. Its 23 chapters, written by authors from a dozen different countries, focus successively on the Asia-Pacific as a whole, the strategies of individual universities, and national policies and strategies in response to the global challenge.