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Numbers Rule

Author: George G. Szpiro
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400834440
Size: 30.14 MB
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Since the very birth of democracy in ancient Greece, the simple act of voting has given rise to mathematical paradoxes that have puzzled some of the greatest philosophers, statesmen, and mathematicians. Numbers Rule traces the epic quest by these thinkers to create a more perfect democracy and adapt to the ever-changing demands that each new generation places on our democratic institutions. In a sweeping narrative that combines history, biography, and mathematics, George Szpiro details the fascinating lives and big ideas of great minds such as Plato, Pliny the Younger, Ramon Llull, Pierre Simon Laplace, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, John von Neumann, and Kenneth Arrow, among many others. Each chapter in this riveting book tells the story of one or more of these visionaries and the problem they sought to overcome, like the Marquis de Condorcet, the eighteenth-century French nobleman who demonstrated that a majority vote in an election might not necessarily result in a clear winner. Szpiro takes readers from ancient Greece and Rome to medieval Europe, from the founding of the American republic and the French Revolution to today's high-stakes elective politics. He explains how mathematical paradoxes and enigmas can crop up in virtually any voting arena, from electing a class president, a pope, or prime minister to the apportionment of seats in Congress. Numbers Rule describes the trials and triumphs of the thinkers down through the ages who have dared the odds in pursuit of a just and equitable democracy.

Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy

Author: S.M. Amadae
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226016542
Size: 48.57 MB
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Offering a fascinating biography of a foundational theory, Amadae reveals not only how the ideological battles of the Cold War shaped ideas but also how those ideas may today be undermining the very notion of individual liberty they were created to defend.

The Arrow Impossibility Theorem

Author: Eric Maskin
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231153287
Size: 12.76 MB
Format: PDF
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Kenneth Arrow's pathbreaking Òimpossibility theoremÓ was a watershed in the history of welfare economics, voting theory, and collective choice, demonstrating that there is no voting rule that satisfies the four desirable axioms of decisiveness, consensus, nondictatorship, and independence. In this book, Amartya Sen and Eric Maskin explore the implications of ArrowÕs theorem. Sen considers its ongoing utility, exploring the theoremÕs value and limitations in relation to recent research on social reasoning, while Maskin discusses how to design a voting rule that gets us closer to the idealÑgiven that achieving the ideal is impossible. The volume also contains a contextual introduction by social choice scholar Prasanta K. Pattanaik and commentaries from Joseph E. Stiglitz and Kenneth Arrow himself, as well as essays by Sen and Maskin outlining the mathematical proof and framework behind their assertions.

Algorithmic Decision Theory

Author: Toby Walsh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319231146
Size: 36.57 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed conference proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Algorithmic Decision Theory , ADT 2015, held in September 2015 in Lexington, USA. The 32 full papers presented were carefully selected from 76 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections such as preferences; manipulation, learning and other issues; utility and decision theory; argumentation; bribery and control; social choice; allocation and other problems; doctoral consortium.

The Present Situation In The Philosophy Of Science

Author: Friedrich Stadler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048191157
Size: 15.75 MB
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This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the interdisciplinary development of its specialist fields, but also to provoke reflection on the idea of ‘European philosophy of science’. This efforts should foster a contemporaneous reflection on what might be meant by philosophy of science in Europe and European philosophy of science, and how in fact awareness of it could assist philosophers interpret and motivate their research through a stronger collective identity.The overarching aim is to set the background for a collaborative project organising, systematising, and ultimately forging an identity for, European philosophy of science by creating research structures and developing research networks across Europe to promote its development.

Ethics Out Of Economics

Author: John Broome
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521644914
Size: 57.95 MB
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Many economic problems are also ethical problems: should we value economic equality? how much should we care about preserving the environment? how should medical resources be divided between saving life and enhancing life? This book examines some of the practical issues that lie between economics and ethics, and shows how utility theory can contribute to ethics. John Broome's work has, unusually, combined sophisticated economic and philosophical expertise, and Ethics Out of Economics brings together some of his most important essays, augmented with an updated introduction. The first group of essays deals with the relation between preference and value, the second with various questions about the formal structure of good, and the concluding section with the value of life. This work is of interest and importance for both economists and philosophers, and shows powerfully how economic methods can contribute to moral philosophy.

Tragic Choices

Author: Guido Calabresi
Publisher: W W Norton & Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9780393090857
Size: 42.89 MB
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This book offers a general theoretical account of how societies cope with decisions which they regard as tragic.