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Social Contract Theory In American Jurisprudence

Author: Thomas R. Pope
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135935327
Size: 18.95 MB
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Despite decades of attempts and the best intentions of its members, the United States Supreme Court has failed to develop a coherent jurisprudence regarding the state’s proper relationship to the individual. Without some objective standard upon which to ground jurisprudence, decisions have moved along a spectrum between freedom and authority and back again, affecting issues as diverse as individual contractual liberties and the right to privacy. Social Contract Theory in American Jurisprudence seeks to reintroduce the lessons of modern political philosophy to offer a solution for this variable application of legal principle and to lay the groundwork for a jurisprudence consistent in both theory and practice. Thomas R. Pope’s argument examines two exemplary court cases, Lochner v. New York and West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, and demonstrates how the results of these cases failed to achieve the necessary balance of liberty and the public good because they considered the matter in terms of a dichotomy. Pope explores our constitution’s roots in social contract theory, looking particularly to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes for a jurisprudence that is consistent with the language and tradition of the Constitution, and that is also more effectually viable than existing alternatives. Pope concludes with an examination of recent cases before the Court, grounding his observations firmly within the developments of ongoing negotiation of jurisprudence. Addressing the current debate between individual liberty and government responsibility within the context of contemporary jurisprudence, Pope considers the implications of a Hobbesian founding for modern policy. This book will be particularly relevant to scholars of Constitutional Law, the American Founding, and Modern Political Theory.

The Latino Gender Gap In U S Politics

Author: Christina E. Bejarano
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135010609
Size: 35.93 MB
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Many questions remain unanswered about the observable differences in voting behavior, partisanship, and cultural attitudes among men and women. Latino political participation in the United States is generally lower than the rest of the population, mainly due to their high proportion of youth and foreign born populations that are ineligible to vote. This dynamic is slowing changing, partly as a result of the rapidly growing Latino population in the United States. This book delves deeper into the complex gender differences for Latino political behavior. More specifically, it is a political analysis of the diverse U.S. Latino population and the interacting factors that can influence male and female differences in voting and policy attitudes. Christina E. Bejarano carefully unpacks more aspects of the gender category for Latinos, including analyzing the gender differences in Latino political behavior across national origin, foreign born status, and generational status. The Latino gender gap can have far-reaching political implications on electoral politics. As the Latino population highlights their growing political sway, the major political parties have and will strategically mobilize and court the Latino electorate, Latinas in particular.

The Social Process Of Lobbying

Author: John C. Scott
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317928245
Size: 50.87 MB
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Despite a wealth of theorizing and research about each concept, lobbying and norms still raise a number of interesting issues. Why do lobbyists and politicians engage in cooperative behavior? How does cooperative behavior in lobbying affect policy making? If democratic participation is good, why do we view lobbying as bad? Lobbying engenders debate about its effects on the political process and on policy development.? Sociologists and other social scientists remain concerned about how norms emerge, the content of norms, how widely they are distributed, and how they are enforced. Political scientists study how interest groups work together and influence the political process. Based on the experience of the author, a former lobbyist, this book looks at the social norms of lobbying and how such norms work in a general framework of other norms and legal institutions in the political process. In developing this argument, John C. Scott claims that: Embedded social relationships and trust-based social norms underpin everyday interactions among policy actors. These relationships and norms have concrete impacts on the policy making process. Social relationships and norms inhibit participation in the political process by outside actors. The investigation is conducted through an innovative theoretical framework, combining existing theoretical perspectives from different disciplines, and using a variety of data and methods, including longitudinal quantitative and social network data, interviews with lobbyists, activists, and policymakers, and anecdotal and historical examples.? ?? The Social Process of Lobbying provides refreshingly new empirical evidence and theoretical analysis on how networks of trust are neither all good nor all bad but are ambivalent: they can both improve policy and fuel collusion.

White Voters In 21st Century America

Author: George Hawley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317701887
Size: 15.22 MB
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The United States is experiencing remarkable demographic changes that are having an important impact on the American electorate. As the minority share of the voting-eligible population continues to grow, the political clout of non-Hispanic whites will further decline. The 2012 election demonstrated that the Democratic Party can secure an Electoral College victory even when it loses badly, in the aggregate, among non-Hispanic whites. This does not mean that white voters are unimportant, however. The political behavior of whites in the decades ahead will largely determine the direction of American politics. This book examines the political behavior of non-Hispanic whites. It considers the trends within the white vote, how white voters differ geographically, and the primary fault lines among white voters. It also examines how white political behavior changes in response to diversity. It considers whether or not the day is approaching when whites consolidate into a largely homogenous voting bloc, or whether whites will remain politically heterogeneous in the decades ahead Whereas other books have examined the political behavior of specific social classes within the non-Hispanic white community (working class whites, for example), this is the first book to examine whites as a whole, and provide a useful summary of recent trends within this group and thoughtful speculation about its future.

Der Leviathan

Author: Thomas Hobbes
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783866474116
Size: 23.65 MB
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Thomas Hobbes Leviathan ist das Sinnbild unumschränkter und unteilbarer staatlicher Macht- Der Mensch, von Natur aus ein egoistisches und auf Selbsterhaltung bedachtes Wesen, findet die Sicherheit des Zusammenlebens allein in der Institution des Staates. Das 1651 erschienene Meisterwerk des einflussreichen englischen Denkers wurde besonders im 20.Jahrhundert viel diskutiert und ist bis heute Inspirationsquelle der modernen Staatstheorie.

Betrachtungen Ber Die Repr Sentativregierung

Author: John Stuart Mill
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518735179
Size: 16.23 MB
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Die anhaltende Diskussion um die »Krise des Parlamentarismus« zeigt, dass die normative Begründung und systematische Bestimmung von Parlamentsfunktionen und demokratischer Öffentlichkeit von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Zukunft der repräsentativen Demokratie ist. Das Problem ist aber nicht neu, wie John Stuart Mills klassischer Text zeigt. Er kreist um die Frage, wie sich die Gefahr einer »Tyrannei der Mehrheit« mit den Partizipationsanforderungen demokratischen Regierens versöhnen lässt. Mill begründet darin u. a. ein deliberatives Verständnis von Politik und erörtert die Gefahren einer bürokratischen Strangulierung politischer Freiheit. Ein Schlüsselwerk der Demokratietheorie und Parlamentarismusforschung.

Gewalt Und Gesellschaftsordnungen

Author: Douglass Cecil North
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161505904
Size: 33.52 MB
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English summary: This book integrates the problem of violence in societies in a larger historical and social science context, showing how economic and political behaviour are closely linked. Most societies limit violence by political manipulation of the economy to create privileged interests. Privileges limit the use of violence by powerful individuals, but hinder both economic and political development of such natural states . In contrast, modern societies are characterized by open access to economic and political organizations, thereby fostering political and economic competition (democracy and markets) and general development. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast provide a framework for understanding the two types of orders and show in which ways a number of countries have achieved the transition between them. German description: Alle Gesellschaften mussen sich mit der Moglichkeit wie der Realitat von Gewalt auseinandersetzen; sie tun das auf unterschiedliche Art. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis und Barry R. Weingast stellen das Problem der Gewalt in einen grosseren sozialwissenschaftlichen und historischen Zusammenhang und zeigen, wie eng wirtschaftliches und politisches Verhalten verbunden sind. Die meisten aus der Geschichte bekannten Gesellschaften, von den Autoren als naturliche Staaten bezeichnet, begrenzen Gewaltanwendung vorbeugend, indem sie durch politische Einflussnahme auf die Wirtschaftstatigkeit privilegierte Interessen schaffen. Diese Privilegien reduzieren den Einsatz von Gewalt von Seiten machtiger Einzelner; es wird auf diese Weise jedoch die wirtschaftliche ebenso wie die politische Entwicklung solcher Staaten behindert. Denn fur die grosse Mehrheit der Nicht-Privilegierten ist der Zugang zu Politik und Wirtschaft dadurch beschrankt.Im Unterschied hierzu schaffen moderne Gesellschaften Zugangsfreiheit zu wirtschaftlichen und politischen Organisationen (Unternehmen, Markten, Parlamenten, hoheitlichen Einrichtungen) und fordern damit den politischen wie den wirtschaftlichen Wettbewerb und somit die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung. Das Buch bietet ein gedankliches Gerust zum Verstandnis der zwei Typen von Gesellschaftsordnungen, die es an historischen Beispielen von der romischen Antike bis ins 19. Jahrhundert veranschaulicht. Anhand dieses Konzepts wird erklart, wieso Gesellschaften mit Zugangsfreiheit sowohl politisch wie wirtschaftlich hoher entwickelt sind und auf welche Weise seit dem 19. Jahrhundert rund 25 Lander den Ubergang vom einen Typus zum anderen geschafft haben.

Manifest Der Kommunistischen Partei Illustriert

Author: Karl Marx
Publisher: Clap Publishing, LLC.
ISBN: 163537698X
Size: 60.27 MB
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Das Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei, auch Das Kommunistische Manifest genannt, ist ein programmatischer text, in dem Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels große Teile der später als „Marxismus“ bezeichneten Weltanschauung entwickelten.Das Manifest entstand im Auftrag des Bundes der Kommunisten, der darin seine Anschauungen darlegen wollte. Es beginnt mit dem heute geflügelten Wort: „Ein Gespenst geht um in Europa – das Gespenst des Kommunismus“ und endet mit dem bekannten Aufruf: „Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt euch!