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Soil Fertilizer And Plant Silicon Research In Japan

Author: Jian Feng Ma
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080525761
Size: 58.49 MB
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Silicon (Si) plays a significant role in the resistance of plants to multiple stresses including biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon is also the only element that does not damage plants when accumulated in excess. However, the contribution of Si to plant growth has been largely ignored due to its universal existence in the earth's crust. From numerous intensive studies on Si, initiated in Japan about 80 years ago, Japanese scientists realized that Si was important for the healthy growth of rice and for stability of rice production. In a worldwide first, silicon was recognized as a valuable fertilizer in Japan. The beneficial effects of Si on rice growth in particular, are largely attributable to the characteristics of a silica gel that is accumulated on the epidermal tissues in rice. These effects are expressed most clearly under high-density cultivation systems with heavy applications of nitrogen. Si is therefore recognized now as an ''agronomically essential element'' in Japan. Recently, Si has become globally important because it generates resistance in many plants to diseases and pests, and may contribute to reduced rates of application of pesticides and fungicides. Silicon is also now considered as an environment-friendly element. The achievements of Si research in Japan are introduced in this book, in relation to soils, fertilizers and plant nutrition.

Silicon In Agriculture

Author: Yongchao Liang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401799784
Size: 23.76 MB
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This book mainly presents the current state of knowledge on the use of of Silicon (Si) in agriculture, including plants, soils and fertilizers. At the same time, it discusses the future interdisciplinary research that will be needed to further our knowledge and potential applications of Si in agriculture and in the environmental sciences in general. As the second most abundant element both on the surface of the Earth’s crust and in soils, Si is an agronomically essential or quasi-essential element for improving the yield and quality of crops. Addressing the use of Si in agriculture in both theory and practice, the book is primarily intended for graduate students and researchers in various fields of the agricultural, biological, and environmental sciences, as well as for agronomic and fertilizer industry experts and advisors. Dr. Yongchao Liang is a full professor at the College of Environmental and Resource Sciences of the Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Dr. Miroslav Nikolic is a research professor at the Institute for Multidisciplinary Research of the University of Belgrade, Serbia. Dr. Richard Bélanger is a full professor at the Department of Plant Pathology of the Laval University, Canada and holder of a Canada Research Chair in plant protection. Dr. Haijun Gong is a full professor at College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, China. Dr. Alin Song is an associate professor at Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Plant Silicon Interactions Between Organisms And The Implications For Ecosystems

Author: Julia Cooke
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288945102X
Size: 51.86 MB
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In this Frontiers topic, we explore how the functions and fates of plant silicon interact with other organisms and ecosystem processes. By bringing together new data from multiple disciplines and scales, we present a cross-section of novel explorations into how plants use silicon and the implications for agriculture and ecosystems. Key aims in this field are to understand the determinants of plant silicon uptake and cycling, and the benefits that silicon uptake confers on plants, including reducing the impacts of stresses such as herbivory. Current research explores inter-specific interactions, including co-evolutionary relationships between plant silicon and animals, particularly morphological adaptations, behavioural responses and the potential for plant silicon to regulate mammal populations. Another emerging area of research is understanding silicon fluxes in soils and vegetation communities and scaling this up to better understand the global silicon cycle. New methods for measuring plant silicon are contributing to progress in this field. Silicon could help plants mitigate some effects of climate change through alleviation of biotic and abiotic stress and silicon is a component of some carbon sinks. Therefore, understanding the role of plant silicon across ecological, agricultural and biogeochemical disciplines is increasingly important in the context of global environmental change.

Mips And Their Roles In The Exchange Of Metalloids

Author: Thomas P. Jahn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441963154
Size: 26.45 MB
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Sixteen years have passed since human aquaporin-1 (AQP1) was discovered as the first water channel, facilitating trans-membrane water fluxes. Subsequent years of research showed that the water channel AQP1 was only the tip of an iceberg; the iceberg itself being the ubiquitous super family of membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that facilitate trans-membrane transport of water and an increasing number of small, water-soluble and uncharged compounds. Here we introduce you to the superfamily of MIPs and provide a summary about our gradually refined understanding of the phylogenetic relationship of its members. This volume is dedicated to the metalloids, a recently discovered group of substrates for a number of specific MIPs in a diverse spectrum of organisms. Particular focus is given to the essential boron, the beneficial silicon and the highly toxic arsenic. The respective MIP isoforms that facilitate the transport of these metalloids include members from several clades of the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that metalloid transport is an ancient function within this family of channel proteins. Among all the various substrates that have been shown to be transported by MIPs, metalloids take an outstanding position. While water transport seems to be a common function of many MIPs, single isoforms in plants have been identified as being crucially important for the uptake of boric acid as well as silicic acid. Here, the function seems not to be redundant, as mutations in those genes render plants deficient in boron and silicon, respectively.

Encyclopedia Of Soil Science

Author: Rattan Lal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849350542
Size: 22.79 MB
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Presents the research and practices with sections on ISTIC-World Soil Information, root growth and agricultural management, nitrate leaching management, podzols, paramos soils, water repellant soils, and rare earth elements. This book includes entries that cover tillage, irrigation, erosion control, and ground water, and soil degradation.

Silicon In Agriculture

Author: L.E. Datnoff
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080541228
Size: 48.23 MB
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Presenting the first book to focus on the importance of silicon for plant health and soil productivity and on our current understanding of this element as it relates to agriculture. Long considered by plant physiologists as a non-essential element, or plant nutrient, silicon was the center of attention at the first international conference on Silicon in Agriculture, held in Florida in 1999. Ninety scientists, growers, and producers of silicon fertilizer from 19 countries pondered a paradox in plant biology and crop science. They considered the element Si, second only to oxygen in quantity in soils, and absorbed by many plants in amounts roughly equivalent to those of such nutrients as sulfur or magnesium. Some species, including such staples as rice, may contain this element in amounts as great as or even greater than any other inorganic constituent. Compilations of the mineral composition of plants, however, and much of the plant physiological literature largely ignore this element. The participants in Silicon in Agriculture explored that extraordinary discrepancy between the silicon content of plants and that of the plant research enterprise. The participants, all of whom are active in agricultural science, with an emphasis on crop production, presented, and were presented with, a wealth of evidence that silicon plays a multitude of functions in the real world of plant life. Many soils in the humid tropics are low in plant available silicon, and the same condition holds in warm to hot humid areas elsewhere. Field experience, and experimentation even with nutrient solutions, reveals a multitude of functions of silicon in plant life. Resistance to disease is one, toleration of toxic metals such as aluminum, another. Silicon applications often minimize lodging of cereals (leaning over or even becoming prostrate), and often cause leaves to assume orientations more favorable for light interception. For some crops, rice and sugarcane in particular, spectacular yield responses to silicon application have been obtained. More recently, other crop species including orchids, daisies and yucca were reported to respond to silicon accumulation and plant growth/disease control. The culture solutions used for the hydroponic production of high-priced crops such as cucumbers and roses in many areas (The Netherlands for example) routinely included silicon, mainly for disease control. The biochemistry of silicon in plant cell walls, where most of it is located, is coming increasingly under scrutiny; the element may act as a crosslinking element between carbohydrate polymers. There is an increased conviction among scientists that the time is at hand to stop treating silicon as a plant biological nonentity. The element exists, and it matters.

Sustainable Waste Management

Author: Ravindra K. Dhir
Publisher: Thomas Telford
ISBN: 9780727732514
Size: 45.81 MB
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This volume presents part of the proceedings of two symposia held under the umbrella of Advances in Waste Management, an international meeting organized by the University of Dundee"s Concrete Technology Unit. CONTENTS include: Global and International Commitments; European Waste Directives and Priorities; National Government Policy; Local Government Policy; and Assessing Environmental Impact.

Mineral Nutrition And Plant Disease

Author: Lawrence E. Datnoff
Publisher: Amer Phytopathological Society
ISBN:
Size: 61.34 MB
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The chemistry of plant nutrients in soil. The physiological role of minerals in the plant. Nitrogen and plant disease. Phosphorus and plant disease. Potassium and plant disease. Calcium and plant disease. Magnesium and plant disease. Sulfur and plant disease. Iron and plant disease. Manganese and plant disease. Zinc and plant disease. Copper and plant disease. Chlorine and plant disease. Molybdenum and plant disease. Boron and plant disease. Nickel and plant disease. Silicon and plant disease. Aluminum and plant disease.