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Soil Microbiology Ecology And Biochemistry

Author: Eldor A. Paul
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123914116
Size: 51.32 MB
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The fourth edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry updates this widely used reference as the study and understanding of soil biota, their function, and the dynamics of soil organic matter has been revolutionized by molecular and instrumental techniques, and information technology. Knowledge of soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry is central to our understanding of organisms and their processes and interactions with their environment. In a time of great global change and increased emphasis on biodiversity and food security, soil microbiology and ecology has become an increasingly important topic. Revised by a group of world-renowned authors in many institutions and disciplines, this work relates the breakthroughs in knowledge in this important field to its history as well as future applications. The new edition provides readable, practical, impactful information for its many applied and fundamental disciplines. Professionals turn to this text as a reference for fundamental knowledge in their field or to inform management practices. New section on "Methods in Studying Soil Organic Matter Formation and Nutrient Dynamics" to balance the two successful chapters on microbial and physiological methodology Includes expanded information on soil interactions with organisms involved in human and plant disease Improved readability and integration for an ever-widening audience in his field Integrated concepts related to soil biota, diversity, and function allow readers in multiple disciplines to understand the complex soil biota and their function

The Ecology Of Agricultural Landscapes

Author: Stephen K. Hamilton
Publisher:
ISBN: 0199773351
Size: 72.48 MB
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Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.

Biochar Application

Author: T. Komang Ralebitso-Senior
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 012803436X
Size: 47.46 MB
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Biochar Application: Essential Soil Microbial Ecology outlines the cutting-edge research on the interactions of complex microbial populations and their functional, structural, and compositional dynamics, as well as the microbial ecology of biochar application to soil, the use of different phyto-chemical analyses, possibilities for future research, and recommendations for climate change policy. Biochar, or charcoal produced from plant matter and applied to soil, has become increasingly recognized as having the potential to address multiple contemporary concerns, such as agricultural productivity and contaminated ecosystem amelioration, primarily by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and improving soil functions. Biochar Application is the first reference to offer a complete assessment of the various impacts of biochar on soil and ecosystems, and includes chapters analyzing all aspects of biochar technology and application to soil, from ecogenomic analyses and application ratios to nutrient cycling and next generation sequencing. Written by a team of international authors with interdisciplinary knowledge of biochar, this reference will provide a platform where collaborating teams can find a common resource to establish outcomes and identify future research needs throughout the world. Includes multiple tables and figures per chapter to aid in analysis and understanding Includes a comprehensive table of the methods used within the contents, ecosystems, contaminants, future research, and application opportunities explored in the book Includes knowledge gaps and directions of future research to stimulate further discussion in the field and in climate change policy Outlines the latest research on the interactions of complex microbial populations and their functional, structural, and compositional dynamics Offers an assessment of the impacts of biochar on soil and ecosystems

Fundamentals Of Environmental And Toxicological Chemistry

Author: Stanley E. Manahan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466553170
Size: 79.92 MB
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Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry: Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition covers university-level environmental chemistry, with toxicological chemistry integrated throughout the book. This new edition of a bestseller provides an updated text with an increased emphasis on sustainability and green chemistry. It is organized based on the five spheres of Earth’s environment: (1) the hydrosphere (water), (2) the atmosphere (air), (3) the geosphere (solid Earth), (4) the biosphere (life), and (5) the anthrosphere (the part of the environment made and used by humans). The first chapter defines environmental chemistry and each of the five environmental spheres. The second chapter presents the basics of toxicological chemistry and its relationship to environmental chemistry. Subsequent chapters are grouped by sphere, beginning with the hydrosphere and its environmental chemistry, water pollution, sustainability, and water as nature’s most renewable resource. Chapters then describe the atmosphere, its structure and importance for protecting life on Earth, air pollutants, and the sustainability of atmospheric quality. The author explains the nature of the geosphere and discusses soil for growing food as well as geosphere sustainability. He also describes the biosphere and its sustainability. The final sphere described is the anthrosphere. The text explains human influence on the environment, including climate, pollution in and by the anthrosphere, and means of sustaining this sphere. It also discusses renewable, nonpolluting energy and introduces workplace monitoring. For readers needing additional basic chemistry background, the book includes two chapters on general chemistry and organic chemistry. This updated edition includes three new chapters, new examples and figures, and many new homework problems.

The Prokaryotes

Author: Edward F. DeLong
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642389535
Size: 62.74 MB
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The Prokaryotes is a comprehensive, multi-authored, peer reviewed reference work on Bacteria and Achaea. This fourth edition of The Prokaryotes is organized to cover all taxonomic diversity, using the family level to delineate chapters. Different from other resources, this new Springer product includes not only taxonomy, but also prokaryotic biology and technology of taxa in a broad context. Technological aspects highlight the usefulness of prokaryotes in processes and products, including biocontrol agents and as genetics tools. The content of the expanded fourth edition is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains review chapters dealing with the most important general concepts in molecular, applied and general prokaryote biology; Part 2 describes the known properties of specific taxonomic groups. Two completely new sections have been added to Part 1: bacterial communities and human bacteriology. The bacterial communities section reflects the growing realization that studies on pure cultures of bacteria have led to an incomplete picture of the microbial world for two fundamental reasons: the vast majority of bacteria in soil, water and associated with biological tissues are currently not culturable, and that an understanding of microbial ecology requires knowledge on how different bacterial species interact with each other in their natural environment. The new section on human microbiology deals with bacteria associated with healthy humans and bacterial pathogenesis. Each of the major human diseases caused by bacteria is reviewed, from identifying the pathogens by classical clinical and non-culturing techniques to the biochemical mechanisms of the disease process. The 4th edition of The Prokaryotes is the most complete resource on the biology of prokaryotes. The following volumes are published consecutively within the 4th Edition: Prokaryotic Biology and Symbiotic Associations Prokaryotic Communities and Ecophysiology Prokaryotic Physiology and Biochemistry Applied Bacteriology and Biotechnology Human Microbiology Actinobacteria Firmicutes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria Other Major Lineages of Bacteria and the Archaea

Introduction To Environmental Toxicology

Author: Wayne Landis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439804109
Size: 50.28 MB
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After fifteen years and three editions, Introduction to Environmental Toxicology: Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes has become a standard that defines the field of environmental toxicology, and the fourth edition is no exception. The authors take an integrated approach to environmental toxicology that emphasizes scale and context as important factors in understanding effects and management options. New in the Fourth Edition: New author, Dr. Ruth M. Sofield 8-page color insert New chapter on fate and transport of contaminants Emphasis on the use of all types of models in understanding how nature works Revised sections on synergy and atrazine toxicity Updated coverage of the analysis of impacts to populations, communities and ecosystems Enlarged risk assessment chapter with an in-depth description of a regional scale risk assessment This edition benefits from the insight of a new author, Dr. Ruth M. Sofield, who prepared the new chapter on the fate and transport of contaminants. The relationship between structure and toxicological properties has been a major theme of this book since its inception and this new chapter expands this fundamental concept to include fate and transport. In the early chapters the use of models in science is discussed and this theme carries throughout the rest of the book. So much has changed in the fifteen years since the publication of the first edition. The mid-1990s seem so long ago, when our understanding of environmental toxicology was very basic. Ecological risk assessment was in its very early stages and the consideration of the effects of toxicants on landscapes was only beginning. Computation was still hard, genes stayed put, and it was only becoming recognized that xenobiotics could have hormonal effects — developments that are taken for granted in this edition. Written by authors who teach this subject, a feature that is reflected in their straightforward style, the book provides a foundation for understanding environmental toxicology and its application.

Nitrogen Fixation In Agriculture Forestry Ecology And The Environment

Author: Dietrich Werner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402035446
Size: 52.66 MB
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Sustainability has a major part to play in the global challenge of continued development of regions, countries, and continents all around the World and biological nitrogen fixation has a key role in this process. This volume begins with chapters specifically addressing crops of major global importance, such as soybeans, rice, and sugar cane. It continues with a second important focus, agroforestry, and describes the use and promise of both legume trees with their rhizobial symbionts and other nitrogen-fixing trees with their actinorhizal colonization. An over-arching theme of all chapters is the interaction of the plants and trees with microbes and this theme allows other aspects of soil microbiology, such as interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact of soil-stress factors on biological nitrogen fixation, to be addressed. Furthermore, a link to basic science occurs through the inclusion of chapters describing the biogeochemically important nitrogen cycle and its key relationships among nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification. The volume then provides an up-to-date view of the production of microbial inocula, especially those for legume crops.

Biogeochemistry Of Ancient And Modern Environments

Author: P. A. Trudinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662265826
Size: 16.50 MB
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This volume contains a selection of papers presented to the Fourth Internation~l Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry (ISEB), and a conference on Biogeochemistry in Relation to Mining Industry and Environmental Pollution (Leaching Conference), held in Canberra, Aust ralia on August 26-31 and September 3-4, 1979, respectively. The ISEB were established to provide "a forum for uninhibited exchange of information and ideas among the biological, chemical, atmospheric and geolorical scientists working in the common area of biogeochemistry, encompassing soil and other earth sciences as well as the hydrosphere and atmosphere", By linking the fourth ISEB with the Leachin~ Conference the scope of discussions was extended to encompass the application of biogeochemical processes to the mining industry. This wide-ranging philosophy is reflected in the breadth and diversity of the subjects covered in this book. The published papers are expanded versions of those presented at the meetings. They have all been scrutinized by at least one referee in addition to the editors. About 20% of the contributions to the meetings are not included, either because authors did not wish to publish or because the papers were not accepted by the editors.