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Soils In Archaeological Research

Author: Vance T. Holliday
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195348811
Size: 44.70 MB
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Soils, invaluable indicators of the nature and history of the physical and human landscape, have strongly influenced the cultural record left to archaeologists. Not only are they primary reservoirs for artifacts, they often encase entire sites. And soil-forming processes in themselves are an important component of site formation, influencing which artifacts, features, and environmental indicators (floral, faunal, and geological) will be destroyed and to what extent and which will be preserved and how well. In this book, Holliday will address each of these issues in terms of fundamentals as well as in field case histories from all over the world. The focus will be on principles of soil geomorphology , soil stratigraphy, and soil chemistry and their applications in archaeological research.

Earth Sciences And Archaeology

Author: Paul Goldberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461511836
Size: 53.91 MB
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This volume brings together contributions from an experienced group of archaeologists and geologists whose common objective is to present thorough and current reviews of the diverse ways in which methods from the earth sciences can contribute to archaeological research. Many areas of research are addressed here, including artifact analysis and sourcing, landscape reconstruction and site formation analysis, soil micromorphology and geophysical exploration of buried sites.

Paleoindian Geoarchaeology Of The Southern High Plains

Author: Vance T. Holliday
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292784538
Size: 78.79 MB
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The Southern High Plains of northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico are rich in Paleoindian archaeological sites, including such well-known ones as Clovis, Lubbock Lake, Plainview, and Midland. These sites have been extensively researched over decades, not only by archaeologists but also by geoscientists, whose studies of soils and stratigraphy have yielded important information about cultural chronology and paleoenvironments across the region. In this book, Vance T. Holliday synthesizes the data from these earlier studies with his own recent research to offer the most current and comprehensive overview of the geoarchaeology of the Southern High Plains during the earliest human occupation. He delves into twenty sites in depth, integrating new and old data on site geomorphology, stratigraphy, soils, geochronology, and paleoenvironments. He also compares the Southern High Plains sites with other sites across the Great Plains, for a broader chronological and paleoenvironmental perspective. With over ninety photographs, maps, cross sections, diagrams, and artifact drawings, this book will be essential reading for geoarchaeologists, archaeologists, and Quaternary geoscientists, as well as avocational archaeologists who take part in Paleoindian site study throughout the American West.

Applied Soils And Micromorphology In Archaeology

Author: Richard I. Macphail
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108508588
Size: 69.68 MB
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Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology provides the most up-to-date information on soil science and its applications in archaeology. Based on more than three decades of investigations and experiments, the volume demonstrates how description protocols and complimentary methods (SEM/EDS, microprobe, micro-FTIR, bulk soil chemistry, micro- and macrofossils) are used in interpretations. It also focuses on key topics, such as palaeosols, cultivation, and occupation surfaces, and introduces a range of current issues, such as site inundation, climate change, settlement morphology, herding, trackways, industrial processes, funerary features, and site transformation. Structured around important case studies, Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology is thoroughly-illustrated, with color plates and figures, tables and other ancillary materials on its website (www.cambridge.org/9781107011380); chapter appendices can be accessed separately using the web (www.geoarchaeology.info/asma). This new book will serve as an essential volume for all archaeological inquiry about soil.

Climate Change Impacts On Soil Processes And Ecosystem Properties

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444638687
Size: 54.94 MB
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Climate Change Impacts on Soil Processes and Ecosystem Properties, Volume 35 presents current and emerging soil science research around the areas of soil processes and climate change, also evaluating future research needs. The book combines the five areas of soil science (microbiology, physics, fertility, pedology, and chemistry) to give a comprehensive assessment. This integration of topics is rarely done in a single publication due to the disciplinary nature of the soil science areas, so users will find it to be a comprehensive resource on the topic. Provides an analysis of all areas of soil science in the context of climate change impact on soil processes and ecosystem properties Presents information that is displayed in an accessible form for practitioners and disciplines outside of soil science Contains a concluding section in each chapter which assesses key areas Includes a discussion on future research and direction

Soils Climate And Society

Author: John D. Wingard
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 1607322137
Size: 62.95 MB
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Much recent archaeological research focuses on social forces as the impetus for cultural change. Soils, Climate and Society, however, focuses on the complex relationship between human populations and the physical environment, particularly the land--the foundation of agricultural production and, by extension, of agricultural peoples. The volume traces the origins of agriculture, the transition to agrarian societies, the sociocultural implications of agriculture, agriculture's effects on population, and the theory of carrying capacity, considering the relation of agriculture to the profound social changes that it wrought in the New World. Soil science plays a significant, though varied, role in each case study, and is the common component of each analysis. Soil chemistry is also of particular importance to several of the studies, as it determines the amount of food that can be produced in a particular soil and the effects of occupation or cultivation on that soil, thus having consequences for future cultivators. Soils, Climate and Society demonstrates that renewed investigation of agricultural production and demography can answer questions about the past, as well as stimulate further research. It will be of interest to scholars of archaeology, historical ecology and geography, and agricultural history.

Techniques In Archaeological Geology

Author: Ervan Garrison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540438229
Size: 31.53 MB
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The archaeological geology of the Quaternary or the geological epoch during which humankind evolved is a scientific endeavor with much to offer in the fields of archaeology and palaeoanthropology. Earth science techniques offer diverse ways of characterizing the elements of past landscapes and archaeological facies. This book is a survey of techniques used in archaeological geology for the study of soils, sediments, rocks and minerals. The techniques presented represent those most commonly used today. They are discussed in detail and examples are provided, in many cases, to demonstrate their usefulness to archaeologists.

Cultivars Anthropic Soils And Stability

Author: Santiago Mora C.
Publisher: Center for Comparative Arch
ISBN: 9781877812057
Size: 30.34 MB
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Clear evidence that sedentary farmers cultivated both maize and manioc in the Colombian Amazon Basin by 2700 B.C. During the first few centuries A.D. a larger population actively managed organic garbage and eventually transported large quantities of silt from the river banks to improve the agricultural yields of the plateau they farmed. Complete text in English and Spanish.

Soils Stones And Symbols Cultural Perceptions Of The Mineral World

Author: Nicole Boivin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134057423
Size: 13.21 MB
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Ethnographic and archaeological records feature a rich body of data suggesting that understandings of the mineral world are in fact both culturally variable and highly diverse. Soils, Stones and Symbols highlights studies from the fields of anthropology, archaeology and philosophy that demonstrate that not all individuals and societies view minerals as commodities to be exploited for economic gain, or as passive objects of disembodied scientific enquiry. In visiting such diverse contexts as contemporary India, colonial-period Australia and prehistoric Europe and the Americas, the papers in this volume demonstrate that in pre-industrial societies, minerals are often symbolically meaningful, ritually powerful, and deeply interwoven into not just economic and material, but also social, cosmological, mythical, spiritual and philosophical aspects of life. In addressing the theme of the mineral world, this book is not only unique within the social and geo-sciences, but also at the forefront of recent attempts to demonstrate the importance of materiality to processes of human cognition and sociality. It draws upon theoretical developments relating to meaning, experience, the body, and material culture to demonstrate that studies of rock art, landscapes, architecture, technology and resource use are all linked through the minerals that constantly surround us and are the focus of our never-ending attempts to understand and transform them.