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Sol Gel Science

Author: C. Jeffrey Brinker
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080571034
Size: 40.33 MB
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Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing presents the physical and chemical principles of the sol-gel process. The book emphasizes the science behind sol-gel processing with a chapter devoted to applications. The first chapter introduces basic terminology, provides a brief historical sketch, and identifies some excellent texts for background reading. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the mechanisms of hydrolysis and condensation for nonsilicate and silicate systems. Chapter 4 deals with stabilization and gelation of sols. Chapter 5 reviews theories of gelation and examines the predicted and observed changes in the properties of a sol in the vicinity of the gel point. Chapter 6 describes the changes in structure and properties that occur during aging of a gel in its pore liquor (or some other liquid). The discussion of drying is divided into two parts, with the theory concentrated in Chapter 7 and the phenomenology in Chapter 8. The structure of dried gels is explored in Chapter 9. Chapter 10 shows the possibility of using the gel as a substrate for chemical reactions or of modifying the bulk composition of the resulting ceramic by performing a surface reaction (such as nitridation) on the gel. Chapter 11 reviews the theory and practice of sintering, describing the mechanisms that govern densification of amorphous and crystalline materials, and showing the advantages of avoiding crystallization before sintering is complete. The properties of gel-derived and conventional ceramics are discussed in Chapter 12. The preparation of films is such an important aspect of sol-gel technology that the fundamentals of film formation are treated at length in Chapter 13. Films and other applications are briefly reviewed in Chapter 14. Materials scientists and researchers in the field of sol-gel processing will find the book invaluable.

Handbook Of Sol Gel Science And Technology 1 Sol Gel Processing

Author: Sumio Sakka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402079665
Size: 71.48 MB
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:

Introduction To Sol Gel Processing

Author: Alain C. Pierre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792381211
Size: 46.95 MB
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TO SOL-GEL PROCESSING by Alain c. Pierre Universite Claude-Bemard-Lyon 1 ~. SPRINGER SCIENCE+BUSINESS MEDIA, LLC " ISBN 978-0-7923-8121-1 ISBN 978-1-4615-5659-6 (eBook) DOl 10. 1007/978-1-4615-5659-6 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A C. I. P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Copyright© 1998 by Springer Science+Business Media New York Originally published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1998 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1998 Second Printing 2002. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mechanical, photo copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC Printed on acid-free paper. This printing is a digital duplication of the original edition. To Marie-Claude David and Valerie Kaolinite gel network. From K. Ma and A. Pierre - Unpublished photograph. TABLE OF CONTENT PREFACE ix 1 . GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1 l. l - Short history 1 1. 2 - Sols, gels and gelation 2 1. 3 - Outline of sol-gel processing 4 1. 4 - Recent developments 6 1. 5 - Advantages and limitations of sol-gel processing 6 1. 6 - Organization of the book 8 1. 7 - References 8 2 ·THE CHEMISTRY OF PRECURSORS SOLUTIONS 11 2. 1 - Introduction 11 2. 2 - Solvents 12 2. 3 - Basis of precursors transformations in solution 17 2. 4 - Metal salts solutions 24 2.

Sol Gel Materials

Author: John D. Wright
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482283166
Size: 73.13 MB
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Sol-Gel processing methods, first used historically for decorative and constructional materials, were extensively developed in the last century for applications such as glasses, ceramics, catalysts, coatings, composites and fibres. Today they are reaching their full potential, enabling the preparation of new generations of advanced materials not easily accessible by other methods yet using mild, low-energy conditions. The topic is therefore increasingly included in advanced undergraduate, MSc and PhD programmes in the areas of chemistry, physics and materials science. This concise introductory text, written at the advanced undergraduate/first-year postgraduate level, is also suitable as an introduction to the development, mechanisms, chemistry, characterisation methods and applications of the technique. It provides readers with an extensive yet concise grounding in the theory of each area of the subject and details the real and potential applications and the future prospects of sol-gel chemistry.

Handbook Of Sol Gel Science And Technology 3 Applications Of Sol Gel Technology

Author: Sumio Sakka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402079689
Size: 78.63 MB
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:

Nanostrukturierte Aluminiumfluoridschichten

Author: Ingo Buchem
Publisher: disserta Verlag
ISBN: 3942109468
Size: 42.23 MB
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Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde ein Niedertemperatur Sol-Gel Verfahren zur Beschichtung von Silizium und Edelstahl mit Aluminiumhydroxidfluoriden und reinen Aluminiumfluoriden entwickelt. Diese Schichten wurden auf ihre Verwendbarkeit in der Katalyse, aber auch auf ihre optischen Eigenschaften hin untersucht. Die mit Hilfe eines neuartigen fluorolytischen Sol-Gel Verfahrens und mit der spin und dip coating Technik hergestellten Schichten auf Silizium und Edelstahl wurden mit der Rasterkraftmikroskopie auf ihre morphologische Struktur, mit der Photoelektronenspektroskopie auf ihre chemische Zusammensetzung und mit der Ellipsometrie auf ihre optischen Eigenschaften und die Schichtdicke untersucht. Die Schichten wurden auf ihre katalytischen Eigenschaften in der Dismutierungsreaktion von R22 hin untersucht. Hierbei wurde die Photoelektronenspektroskopie eingesetzt, um Ver nderungen in der Zusammensetzung zu dokumentieren. Das Verh ltnis zwischen dem Edukt und den Produkten und damit die Aktivit t der Schichten wurde mit Hilfe der Gaschromatographie bestimmt. Es musste zus tzlich eine in situ Kammer f r die Katalyseexperimente in Kombination mit der Photoelektronenspektroskopie konzipiert und angefertigt werden, da die katalytisch aktive Spezies luft- und feuchtigkeitsempfindlich sein k nnte. Die katalytische Aktivit t der Aluminiumhydroxidfluoride und der Schichten sind dabei vergleichbar. HS-AlF3 besitzt erwartungsgem eine h here katalytische Aktivit t. Um eine qualitative Aussage ber die Lage sowohl der Bindungsenergie der Photoelektronen als auch der kinetischen Energie der Augerelektronen und dem daraus resultierenden modifizierten Augerparameter a' treffen zu k nnen, wurde eine umfangreiche Referenzsubstanzdatenbibliothek angefertigt. Mit Hilfe des Wagnerplots konnte gezeigt werden, dass egal welche Precursoren mit R22 nachfluoriert wurden, ein den reinen Aluminiumfluoridphasen sehr hnliches Produkt entsteht. Die auf Siliziumsubstrat abgeschiedenen Schichten kon

Fundamentals Of Mold Growth In Indoor Environments And Strategies For Healthy Living

Author: Olaf C. G. Adan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9086867227
Size: 62.43 MB
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Today, indoor mold and moisture, and their associated health effects, are a society-wide problem. The economic consequences of indoor mold and moisture are enormous. Their global dimension has been emphasized in several recent international publications, stressing that the most important means for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures.This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial roles of water and materials, Health, including a state-of-the-art description of the health-related effects of indoor molds, and Strategies, integrating remediation, prevention and policies.

Low Dimensional Solids

Author: Duncan W. Bruce
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119972938
Size: 24.22 MB
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With physical properties that often may not be described by the transposition of physical laws from 3D space across to 2D or even 1D space, low-dimensional solids exhibit a high degree of anisotropy in the spatial distribution of their chemical bonds. This means that they can demonstrate new phenomena such as charge-density waves and can display nanoparticulate (0D), fibrous (1D) and lamellar (2D) morphologies. This text presents some of the most recent research into the synthesis and properties of these solids and covers: Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Inorganic Nanotubes and Nanowires Biomedical Applications of Layered Double Hydroxides Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures Superconducting Borides Introducing topics such as novel layered superconductors, inorganic-DNA delivery systems and the chemistry and physics of inorganic nanotubes and nanosheets, this book discusses some of the most exciting concepts in this developing field. Additional volumes in the Inorganic Materials Book Series: Molecular Materials Functional Oxides Porous Materials Energy Materials All volumes are sold individually or as comprehensive 5 Volume Set.