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Nanomaterials For Solid State Hydrogen Storage

Author: Robert A. Varin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387777122
Size: 38.60 MB
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Over the past decade, important advances have been made in the development of nanostructured materials for solid state hydrogen storage used to supply hydrogen to fuel cells in a clean, inexpensive, safe and efficient manner. Nanomaterials for Solid State Hydrogen Storage focuses on hydrogen storage materials having high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen capacities, and thus having the highest potential of being applied in the automotive sector. Written by leading experts in the field, Nanomaterials for Solid State Hydrogen Storage provides a thorough history of hydrides and nanomaterials, followed by a discussion of existing fabrication methods. The authors’ own research results in the behavior of various hydrogen storage materials are also presented. Covering fundamentals, extensive research results and recent advances in nanomaterials for solid state hydrogen storage, this book serves as a comprehensive reference.

Solid State Hydrogen Storage

Author: Gavin Walker
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845694945
Size: 30.86 MB
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Hydrogen fuel cells are emerging as a major alternative energy source in transportation and other applications. Central to the development of the hydrogen economy is safe, efficient and viable storage of hydrogen. Solid-state hydrogen storage: Materials and chemistry reviews the latest developments in solid-state hydrogen storage. Part one discusses hydrogen storage technologies, hydrogen futures, hydrogen containment materials and solid-state hydrogen storage system design. Part two reviews the analysis of hydrogen interactions including structural characterisation of hydride materials, neutron scattering techniques, reliably measuring hydrogen uptake in storage materials and modelling of carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage. Part three analyses physically-bound hydrogen storage with chapters on zeolites, carbon nanostructures and metal-organic framework materials. Part four examines chemically-bound hydrogen storage including intermetallics, magnesium hydride, alanates, borohydrides, imides and amides, multicomponent hydrogen storage systems, organic liquid carriers, indirect hydrogen storage in metal ammines and technological challenges in hydrogen storage. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Solid-state hydrogen storage: Materials and chemistry is a standard reference for researchers and professionals in the field of renewable energy, hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen storage. Assesses hydrogen fuel cells as a major alternative energy source Discusses hydrogen storage technologies and solid-state hydrogen storage system design Explores the analysis of hydrogen interactions including reliably measuring hydrogen uptake in storage materials

Hydrogen Storage Technology

Author: Lennie Klebanoff
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 143984108X
Size: 71.17 MB
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Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world’s leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapter explains how a hydrogen-based energy carrier and storage infrastructure is required to address fuel resource and political insecurities as well as global climate change. The second chapter describes high-efficiency hydrogen conversion devices, including internal combustion engines and fuel cells, for producing power and electricity. The book then dives into the state of the art in hydrogen storage technology. It covers recent hydrogen storage materials research and hydrogen storage methods, with an emphasis on solid-state techniques. It also reviews codes and standards and explores engineering approaches for creating zero-emission, hydrogen-fueled power systems. Collecting recent results from around the globe, this book gets you up to date on the latest hydrogen-based technology for mitigating energy and environmental risks. It provides a deep science and engineering-based description of hydrogen storage materials and clearly explains how the materials are engineered for zero-emission, carbon-free power systems.

Handbook Of Hydrogen Storage

Author: Michael Hirscher
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527629817
Size: 50.33 MB
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Owing to the limited resources of fossil fuels, hydrogen is proposed as an alternative and environment-friendly energy carrier. However, its potential is limited by storage problems, especially for mobile applications. Current technologies, as compressed gas or liquefied hydrogen, comprise severe disadvantages and the storage of hydrogen in lightweight solids could be the solution to this problem. Since the optimal storage mechanism and optimal material have yet to be identified, this first handbook on the topic provides an excellent overview of the most probable candidates, highlighting both their advantages as well as drawbacks. From the contents: ? Physisorption ? Clathrates ? Metal hydrides ? Complex hydrides ? Amides, imides, and mixtures ? Tailoring Reaction Enthalpies ? Borazan ? Aluminum hydride ? Nanoparticles A one-stop reference on all questions concerning hydrogen storage for physical and solid state chemists, materials scientists, chemical engineers, and physicists.

Performance Of A Solid State Hydrogen Storage Device With Finned Tube Heat Exchanger

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 66.16 MB
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Abstract: In the present study, a cylindrical solid state hydrogen storage device embedded with finned heat exchanger is numerically investigated. The finned heat exchanger consists of two 'U' shaped tube and circular fins brazed on the periphery of the tubes. 1 kg of LaNi5 alloy is filled inside the device and 80 g of copper flakes is evenly distributed in between the fins to increase the overall thermal conductivity of the metal hydride. Water is used as heat transfer fluid. Absorption performance of the storage device is investigated at constant hydrogen supply pressure of 15 bar and cooling fluid temperature and velocity of 298 K and 1 m/s respectively. At these operating conditions, the required charging time is found to be around 610 s for a storage capacity of 12 g (1.2 wt%). The study is extended to examine the influence of different heat exchanger configurations based on number of fins, thickness of the fins, diameter of tubes, holes in fins, amount of copper flakes etc. An analysis for the same weight of the heat exchanger assembly has also been carried out by changing the number of fins at different thickness and pitch. Highlights: LaNi5 based hydrogen storage device embedded with a heat exchanger is numerically investigated. Copper flakes are used to enhance the effective thermal conductivity of metal hydride. Numerical results are validated against the experimental results. Effects of different heat exchanger design on absorption performance are examined.

Hydrogen Storage Materials

Author: Darren P. Broom
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857292216
Size: 31.12 MB
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The problem of storing hydrogen safely and effectively is one of the major technological barriers currently preventing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy carrier and the subsequent transition to a so-called hydrogen economy. Practical issues with the storage of hydrogen in both gas and liquid form appear to make reversible solid state hydrogen storage the most promising potential solution. Hydrogen Storage Materials addresses the characterisation of the hydrogen storage properties of the materials that are currently being considered for this purpose. The background to the topic is introduced, along with the various types of materials that are currently under investigation, including nanostructured interstitial and complex hydrides, and porous materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and microporous organic polymers. The main features of Hydrogen Storage Materials include: an overview of the different types of hydrogen storage materials and the properties that are of interest for their practical use; descriptions of the gas sorption measurement methods used to determine these properties, and the complementary techniques that can be used to help corroborate hydrogen uptake data; and extensive coverage of the practical considerations for accurate hydrogen sorption measurement that drive both instrument design and the development of experimental methodology. Hydrogen Storage Materials provides an up-to-date overview of the topic for experienced researchers, while including enough introductory material to serve as a useful, practical introduction for newcomers to the field.

Handbook Of Nanomaterials For Hydrogen Storage

Author: Mieczyslaw Jurczyk
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315340771
Size: 80.88 MB
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Over the past years, nanoscale metallic and ceramic materials, also called nanomaterials, have attracted enormous interest from researchers. Nanomaterials demonstrate novel properties compared with conventional (microcrystalline) materials owing to their nanoscale features. Recently, the mechanical alloying method and the powder metallurgy process for the fabrication of metal/alloy-ceramic nanocomposites with a unique microstructure have been developed. This book focuses on the fabrication of nanostructured materials and nanocomposites for hydrogen storage applications. The potential application of this research fits well to the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020, where one of the societal challenges is secure, clean, and efficient energy. Replacement of conventional technologies by hydride technologies may also contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of this book is to provide comprehensive and complete knowledge about materials for energy applications to graduate students and researchers in chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science.

Nanostructured Tm Boron Based Hydrides For Solid State Hydrogen Storage Tm Transition Metal

Author: Amirreza Shirani Bidabadi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 47.23 MB
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Several complex borohydride systems were investigated in this work as potential candidates for on-demand hydrogen generation and/or storage. All selected systems were synthesized by ball milling (BM) in expectation of inducing mechano-chemical activation synthesis (MCAS). The (LiBH4-FeCl2) system with the molar ratio of 2:1 showed rapid hydrogen generation (mechanical dehydrogenation) at room temperature. Rapid mechanical dehydrogenation was also observed during milling of LiBH4 with TiCl2 and TiCl3 with the molar ratio of 2:1 and 3:1, respectively. The Li-B-Fe/Ti-H systems are quite remarkable since their mechanical dehydrogenation rate at ambient temperature is much higher than their thermal dehydrogenation rate within the 100-250°C range. Mechanical dehydrogenation of the (3LiBH4-TiF3) system was rather slow without and with additives such as ultrafine filamentary Ni and graphene. Only minimal mechanical dehydrogenation was observed for the (LiBH4-MnCl2) system. Some additives such as ultrafine filamentary Ni and LiNH2 accelerated the mechanical dehydrogenation rate of this system. The Mn(BH4)2 and LiCl, which were identified as the MCAS products after ball milling of (LiBH4-MnCl2), are both nanocrystalline after synthesis. The Mn(BH4)2-LiCl nanocomposite was capable of desorbing up to ~ 4.5 wt.% at 100°C during isothermal dehydrogenation and was very stable and released no H2 during long-term storage at room temperature for over 120 days. Mass spectrometry (MS) of the ball milled (LiBH4-MnCl2) showed the principal peaks of H2 accompanied by a miniscule peak of B2H6 (diborane gas). Adding 5 wt.% of LiNH2, graphene and Ni to the powder mixture during mechano-chemical synthesis increased the H2/B2H6 peak ratio, consequently minimizing the release of B2H6 during isothermal dehydrogenation. LiNH2 and Ni suppressed the release of B2H6 to a larger extent than graphene. Isothermal desorption of ball milled (3LiBH4-TiF3) occurred at a very low temperature of 60°C resulting in desorption of 4.52 wt.% H2 within 93 h. Interestingly, increasing milling energy from QTR=72.8 kJ/g (1 h BM) to QTR=364 kJ/g (5 h BM) led to a nearly complete disappearance of the MS B2H6 peak.

Homogeneous Hydrogenation

Author: P.A. Chaloner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401717915
Size: 54.58 MB
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Homogeneous hydrogenation is one of the most thoroughly studied fields of homogeneous catalysis. The results of these studies have proved to be most important for an understanding of the underlying principles of the activation of small molecules by transition metal complexes. During the past three decades homogeneous hydrogenation has found widespread application in organic chemistry, including the production of important pharmaceuticals, especially where a sophisticated degree of selectivity is required. This volume presents a general account of the main principles and applications of homogeneous hydrogenation by transition metal complexes. Special attention is devoted to the mechanisms by which these processes occur, and the role of the recently discovered complexes of molecular hydrogen is described. Sources of hydrogen, other than H2, are also considered (transfer hydrogenation). The latest achievements in highly stereoselective hydrogenations have made possible many new applications in organic synthesis. These applications are documented by giving details of the reduction of important unsaturated substrates (alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes and ketones, nitrocompounds, etc.). Hydrogenation in biphasic and phase transfer catalyzed systems is also described. Finally, a discussion of the biochemical routes of H2 activation highlights the similarities and differences in performing hydrogenation in both natural and synthetic systems. For researchers working in the fields of homogeneous catalysis, especially in areas such as pharmaceuticals, plastics and fine chemicals.