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Spatial Complexity Informatics And Wildlife Conservation

Author: Samuel A. Cushman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9784431877714
Size: 73.47 MB
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As Earth faces the greatest mass extinction in 65 million years, the present is a moment of tremendous foment and emergence in ecological science. With leaps in advances in ecological research and the technical tools available, scientists face the critical task of challenging policymakers and the public to recognize the urgency of our global crisis. This book focuses directly on the interplay between theory, data, and analytical methodology in the rapidly evolving fields of animal ecology, conservation, and management. The mixture of topics of particular current relevance includes landscape ecology, remote sensing, spatial modeling, geostatistics, genomics, and ecological informatics. The greatest interest to the practicing scientist and graduate student will be the synthesis and integration of these topics to provide a composite view of the emerging field of spatial ecological informatics and its applications in research and management.

Landscape Genetics

Author: Niko Balkenhol
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118525299
Size: 22.72 MB
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Despite the substantial interest in landscape genetics from the scientific community, learning about the concepts and methods underlying the field remains very challenging. The reason for this is the highly interdisciplinary nature of the field, which combines population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. These fields have traditionally been treated separately in classes and textbooks, and very few scientists have received the interdisciplinary training necessary to efficiently teach or apply the diversity of techniques encompassed by landscape genetics. To address the current knowledge gap, this book provides the first in depth treatment of landscape genetics in a single volume. Specifically, this book delivers fundamental concepts and methods underlying the field, covering particularly important analytical methods in detail, and presenting empirical and theoretical applications of landscape genetics for a variety of environments and species. Consistent with the interdisciplinary nature of landscape genetics, the book combines an introductory, textbook like section with additional sections on advanced topics and applications that are more typical of edited volumes. The chapter topics and the expertise of the authors and the editorial team make the book a standard reference for anyone interested in landscape genetics. The book includes contributions from many of the leading researchers in landscape genetics. The group of scientists we have assembled has worked on several collaborative projects over the last years, including a large number of peer reviewed papers, several landscape genetics workshops at international conferences, and a distributed graduate seminar on landscape genetics. Based on the experiences gained during these collaborative teaching and research activities, the book includes chapters that synthesize fundamental concepts and methods underlying landscape genetics (Part 1), chapters on advanced topics that deserve a more in depth treatment (Part 2), and chapters illustrating the use of concepts and methods in empirical applications (Part 3). This structure ensures a high usefulness of the book for beginning landscape geneticists and experienced researchers alike, so that it has a broad target audience. At least one of the four co editors is involved in almost every chapter of the book, thereby ensuring a high consistency and coherency among chapters.

Predictive Species And Habitat Modeling In Landscape Ecology

Author: C. Ashton Drew
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441973900
Size: 51.57 MB
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Most projects in Landscape Ecology, at some point, define a species-habitat association. These models are inherently spatial, dealing with landscapes and their configurations. Whether coding behavioral rules for dispersal of simulated organisms through simulated landscapes, or designing the sampling extent of field surveys and experiments in real landscapes, landscape ecologists must make assumptions about how organisms experience and utilize the landscape. These convenient working postulates allow modelers to project the model in time and space, yet rarely are they explicitly considered. The early years of landscape ecology necessarily focused on the evolution of effective data sources, metrics, and statistical approaches that could truly capture the spatial and temporal patterns and processes of interest. Now that these tools are well established, we reflect on the ecological theories that underpin the assumptions commonly made during species distribution modeling and mapping. This is crucial for applying models to questions of global sustainability. Due to the inherent use of GIS for much of this kind of research, and as several authors’ research involves the production of multicolored map figures, there would be an 8-page color insert. Additional color figures could be made available through a digital archive, or by cost contributions of the chapter authors. Where applicable, would be relevant chapters’ GIS data and model code available through a digital archive. The practice of data and code sharing is becoming standard in GIS studies, is an inherent method of this book, and will serve to add additional research value to the book for both academic and practitioner audiences.

Phenology An Integrative Environmental Science

Author: Mark D. Schwartz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400769253
Size: 46.87 MB
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Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring events, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenological phenomena all give a ready measure of the environment as viewed by the associated organism, and are thus ideal indicators of the impact of local and global changes in weather and climate on the earth’s biosphere. Assessing our changing world is a complex task that requires close cooperation from experts in biology, climatology, ecology, geography, oceanography, remote sensing, and other areas. Like its predecessor, this second edition of Phenology is a synthesis of current phenological knowledge, designed as a primer on the field for global change and general scientists, students, and interested members of the public. With updated and new contributions from over fifty phenological experts, covering data collection, current research, methods, and applications, it demonstrates the accomplishments, progress over the last decade, and future potential of phenology as an integrative environmental science.

Spatial Resilience In Social Ecological Systems

Author: Graeme S. Cumming
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400703070
Size: 77.90 MB
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Spatial Resilience is a new and exciting area of interdisciplinary research. It focuses on the influence of spatial variation – including such things as spatial location, context, connectivity, and dispersal – on the resilience of complex systems, and on the roles that resilience and self-organization play in generating spatial variation. Prof. Cumming provides a readable introduction and a first comprehensive synthesis covering the core concepts and applications of spatial resilience to the study of social-ecological systems. The book follows a trajectory from concepts through models, methods, and case study analysis before revisiting the central problems in the further conceptual development of the field. In the process, the author ranges from the movements of lions in northern Zimbabwe to the urban jungles of Europe, and from the collapse of past societies to the social impacts of modern conflict. The many case studies and examples discussed in the book show how the concept of spatial resilience can generate valuable insights into the spatial dynamics of social-ecological systems and contribute to solving some of the most pressing problems of our time. Although it has been written primarily for students, this book will provide fascinating reading for interdisciplinary scientists at all career stages as well as for the interested public. "Graeme Cumming, central in the development of resilience thinking and theory, has produced a wonderful book on spatial resilience, the first ever on this topic. The book will become a shining star, a classic in the explosion of new ideas and approaches to studying and understanding social-ecological systems." Carl Folke, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden

Problem Solving In Conservation Biology And Wildlife Management

Author: James P. Gibbs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444359819
Size: 46.29 MB
Format: PDF
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This set of exercises has been created expressly for students and teachers of conservation biology and wildlife management who want to have an impact beyond the classroom. The book presents a set of 32 exercises that are primarily new and greatly revised versions from the book's successful first edition. These exercises span a wide range of conservation issues: genetic analysis, population biology and management, taxonomy, ecosystem management, land use planning, the public policy process and more. All exercises discuss how to take what has been learned and apply it to practical, real-world issues. Accompanied by a detailed instructor’s manual and a student website with software and support materials, the book is ideal for use in the field, lab, or classroom. Also available: Fundamentals of Conservation Biology, 3rd edition (2007) by Malcolm L Hunter Jr and James Gibbs, ISBN 9781405135450 Saving the Earth as a Career: Advice on Becoming a Conservation Professional (2007) by Malcolm L Hunter Jr, David B Lindenmayer and Aram JK Calhoun, ISBN 9781405167611

Habitat Suitability And Distribution Models

Author: Antoine Guisan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521765137
Size: 24.64 MB
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This book introduces the key stages of niche-based habitat suitability model building, evaluation and prediction required for understanding and predicting future patterns of species and biodiversity. Beginning with the main theory behind ecological niches and species distributions, the book proceeds through all major steps of model building, from conceptualization and model training to model evaluation and spatio-temporal predictions. Extensive examples using R support graduate students and researchers in quantifying ecological niches and predicting species distributions with their own data, and help to address key environmental and conservation problems. Reflecting this highly active field of research, the book incorporates the latest developments from informatics and statistics, as well as using data from remote sources such as satellite imagery. A website at www.unil.ch/hsdm contains the codes and supporting material required to run the examples and teach courses.

Species Diversity And Community Structure

Author: Teiji Sota
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431542612
Size: 80.61 MB
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This book introduces recent progress in the study of species diversity and community structures in terrestrial organisms conducted by three groups at Kyoto University. First, it explains species diversity and the functioning of fungi in Asian regions as outlined by metagenomic approaches using next-generation sequencing technology. The advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies accelerate the speed of species inventorying, especially for microorganisms. Second, the study of complex interactions between herbivorous insects and plants in the community and ecosystem contexts is presented. Recent studies in community and ecosystem genetics shed light on these complex interactions with novel approaches incorporating genetic perspectives including genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity in plant defenses against herbivores. Finally, recent studies on speciation processes in insects are described, processes that are related to the evolution of particular life history strategies. Included is an examination of two hypotheses that may be important in understanding diversification of insect species in heterogeneous environments in space and time. This book is a valuable resource especially for ecologists who are interested in species diversity and community structure.

The Algae World

Author: Dinabandhu Sahoo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401773211
Size: 16.31 MB
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Algal World has been carefully written and edited with an interdisciplinary appeal and aims to bring all aspects of Algae together in one volume. The 22 chapters are divided into two different parts which have been authored by eminent researchers from across the world. The first part, Biology of Algae, contains 10 chapters dealing with the general characteristics, classification and description of different groups such as Blue Green Algae, Green Algae, Brown Algae, Red Algae, Diatoms, Xanthophyceae, Dinophyceae, etc. In , it has two important chapters covering Algae in Extreme Environments and Life Histories and Growth Forms in Green Algae. The second part, Applied Phycology, contains 12 chapters dealing with the more applied aspects ranging from Algal Biotechnology, Biofuel, Phycoremediation, Bioactive Compounds, Biofertilizer, Fatty Acids, Harmful Algal Blooms, Industrial Applications of Seaweeds, Nanotechnology, Phylogenomics and Algal culture Techniques, etc.