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Spectroscopic And Mechanistic Studies Of Dinuclear Metallohydrolases And Their Biomimetic Complexes

Author: Lena Daumann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319066293
Size: 35.60 MB
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Lena Daumanns's thesis describes structural and functional studies of the enzyme Glycerophosphodiesterase (GpdQ) from Enterobacter aerogenes. It also examines the properties of small mimics of this enzyme and related binuclear metallohydrolases such as the metallo-ß-lactamases to enhance our understanding of hydrolytic cleavage of important substrates like phosphoesters and β-lactams. Overall, this project has led to a better understanding of the metal ion binding and active site structural features of the enzyme GpdQ. Daumann describes how she successfully immobilized phosphoesterase and related biomimetics on solid supports for potential applications in the area of bioremediation of organophosphate pesticides. Analysis shows that both the enzyme and biomimetics can be stored on the solid support without loss of activity. Furthermore, the author specroscopically and mechanistically characterized a number of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Co(II) complexes, some of which are among the most active biomimetics towards organophosphates reported to date. This thesis makes excellent reading for non-specialists because each chapter includes a short introduction section.

Biotechnology And Polymers

Author: C.G. Gebelein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461538440
Size: 36.42 MB
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The term biotechnology has emerged on the contemporary scene fairly recently, but the basic concept of utilizing natural materials, either directly or in modified versions, dates back to antiquity. If we search the ancient literature, such as the Bible, we find hundreds of examples wherein people employed, or modified, natural materials for a variety of important uses. As far back as the days of Noah we find pitch, a natural material, being used as a caulk. Clothing was made from animal skins and the products of several plants. Today, we would consider these things as important biotechnological developments. Likewise, the human use of polymeric materials also has a long his tory. In fact, many of the original materials used by mankind were poly mers derived from nature, such as wood, flax, cotton, wool and animal skins, which were used for shelter and clothing. In recent years, however, the concept of biotechnology has taken on a new and renewed role in our society. This is due to a combination of factors, including an increased interest in environmental concerns and the desire to break free from the stranglehold that petrochemicals have placed on our society. If we can manufacture some of our polymers from renewable resources, then we can expect to prepare them for many more years into the future than we might if we could only depend on the petro chemical resources.

Biomimetics Through Nanoelectronics

Author: Jia Liu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319686097
Size: 38.99 MB
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This thesis presents original research on how to seamlessly integrate electronics with living biological systems. Jia Liu has used silicon nanowires as active sensors to investigate biological signals at the cellular level. He has also designed nanoelectronic networks into flexible, three-dimensional (3D) and macroporous architectures, which mimic the structure of tissue scaffolds for in vitro 3D integrations with synthetic tissues and in vivo implantation by means of syringe injection. Importantly, the results demonstrate 3D interpenetrations of nanoelectronic networks with neural networks, 3D mapping of tissue activity and long-term implantation with minimal immunoresponses. Further, the book discusses potential applications for pharmacological studies, brain activity mapping and nanoelectronics enabled therapies. The findings presented here have gained wide recognition, including a top research ranking by Chemical & Engineering News and being listed among Scientific American’s 10 world changing ideas in 2015.

High Resolution Epr

Author: Graeme Hanson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387848568
Size: 50.42 MB
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Metalloproteins comprise approximately 30% of all known proteins, and are involved in a variety of biologically important processes, including oxygen transport, biosynthesis, electron transfer, biodegradation, drug metabolism, proteolysis, and hydrolysis of amides and esters, environmental sulfur and nitrogen cycles, and disease mechanisms. EPR spectroscopy has an important role in not only the geometric structural characterization of the redox cofactors in metalloproteins but also their electronic structure, as this is crucial for their reactivity. The advent of x-ray crystallographic snapshots of the active site redox cofactors in metalloenzymes in conjunction with high-resolution EPR spectroscopy has provided detailed structural insights into their catalytic mechanisms. This volume was conceived in 2005 at the Rocky Mountain Conference on Analytical Chemistry (EPR Symposium) to highlight the importance of high-resolution EPR spectroscopy to the structural (geometric and electronic) characterization of redox active cofactors in metalloproteins. We have been fortunate to have enlisted internationally recognized experts in this joint venture to provide the scientific community with an overview of high-resolution EPR and its application to metals in biology. This volume, High-Resolution EPR: Applications to Metalloenzymes and Metals in Medicine, covers high-resolution EPR methods, iron proteins, nickel and copper enzymes, and metals in medicine. An eloquent synopsis of each chapter is provided by John Pilbrow in the Introduction. A second volume, Metals in Biology: Applications of High-Resolution EPR to Metalloenzymes, will appear later this year covering the complement of other metalloproteins. One of the pioneers in the development of pulsed EPR and its application to metalloproteins was Arthur Schweiger, whose contribution we include in this volume. Unfortunately, he passed away suddenly during the preparation of this volume. The editors and coauthors are extremely honored to dedicate this volume to the memory of Arthur Schweiger in recognition of his technical advances and insights into pulsed EPR and its application to metalloproteins. Arthur was extremely humble and treated everyone with equal respect. He was a gifted educator with an ability to explain complex phenomena in terms of simple intuitive pictures, had a delightful personality, and continues to be sadly missed by the community. It is an honor for the editors to facilitate the dissemination of these excellent contributions to the scientific community. Suggestions for future volumes are always appreciated.

Artificial Nucleases

Author: Marina A. Zenkova
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364218510X
Size: 12.32 MB
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The development of agents capable of cleaving RNA and DNA has attracted considerable attention from researchers in the last few years, because of the immediate and very important applications they can find in the emerging fields of biotechnology and pharmacology. There are essentially two classes of these agents - nucleases that occur naturally inside cells and synthetically produced artificial nucleases. The first class includes protein enzyme nucle ases and catalytic RNA structured ribozymes that perform cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds in nucleic acids according to a hydrolytic pathway in the course of different biochemical processes in the cell. A different pathway is used by some antibiotics which cleave DNA via redox-based mechanisms resulting in oxidative damage of nucleotide units and breakage of the DNA backbone. The above molecules are indispensable tools for manipulating nucleic acids and processing RNA; DNA-cleaving antibiotics and cytotoxic ribonucleases have demonstrated utility as chemotherapeutic agents. The second class, artificial nucleases, are rationally designed to imitate the active centers of natural enzymes by simple structures possessing minimal sets of the most important characteristics that are essential for catalysis. A dif ferent approach, in vitro selection, was also used to create artificial RNA and DNA enzymes capable of cleaving RNA. Being less efficient and specific as compared to the natural enzymes, the primitive mimics are smaller and robust and can function in a broad range of conditions.

Handbook Of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

Author: D.R. Vij
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387375902
Size: 57.65 MB
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Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. This handbook brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies. It provides an overview of sixteen spectroscopic technique and self-contained chapters present up-to-date scientific and technical information and references with minimal overlap and redundancy.

Advanced Epr

Author: A.J. Hoff
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080933874
Size: 43.73 MB
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This new book provides an up-to-date survey of existing EPR techniques and their applications in biology and biochemistry, and also provides a wealth of ideas for future developments in instrumentation and theory. The material is broadly organized into four parts. In the first part (chapters 1 to 6) pulsed EPR is discussed in detail. The second part (chapters 7 to 12) provides detailed discussions of a number of novel and experimental methods. The third part comprises seven chapters on double-resonance techniques, five on ENDOR and two on optically- and reaction yield-detected resonance. The final part is devoted to a thorough discussion of a number of new developments in the application of EPR to various biological and biochemical problems. Advanced EPR will interest biophysicists, physical biochemists, EPR spectroscopists and others who will value the extensive treatment of pulsed EPR techniques, the discussion of new developments in EPR instrumentation, and the integration of theory and experimental details as applied to problems in biology and biochemistry.

Metal Ions In Biological Systems

Author: Astrid Sigel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203913703
Size: 37.69 MB
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Metal ions are currently used for such applications as diabetes, anti-inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis, psychiatric, and anti-ulcer medications, using compounds of vanadium, copper and zinc, gold, lithium, and bismuth, respectively. This text explores these applications in addition to an assessment of chelation therapy, uses in environmental sciences, and the human health effects of metal ion deficiency for several elements-magnesium, calcium, zinc, and iron. Featuring contributions from 29 internationally recognized experts, this book offers a timely, authoritative look at ionic complexes in medicine.

Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy

Author: W. Roy Mason
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470139226
Size: 38.41 MB
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The book is a technical guide for chemists and spectroscopists, and presents a concise description of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy and how it has advanced the interpretation of molecular electronic spectra. Provides a practical guide to utilizing MCD spectroscopy for chemists starting in the field Written by an expert with over twenty years of experience in the field Helps the reader to visualize the optical spectroscopic effects presented by MCD measurements Includes practical considerations for experimental MCD measurements based on the author's experience Written as a general discussion of the subject matter, with illustrative examples provided and discussed in the case studies to show the breadth of application of MCD measurements.